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Internet in China

edited by Hanno Lecher
Last updated on 28 Jul 2005, 35 main entries


Internet:   Top | Networks | History & Development | Regulations & Control | On-line Sources

    Networks

    Internet - Networks:   Up | China | Taiwan

    China

    Since the Internet regulations of February, 1997, four major networks are responsible for the control of the complete international Internet traffic in China. These networks are maintained by the Chinese State Education Commission 國家教育委員會, the Chinese Academy of Science 中國科學院, the Ministry of Post and Telecommunication 郵電部, and the Ministry of Electronics Industry 電子工業部. All four belong directly to the State Council 國家委員會, which is headed by the premier.

  1. 中國教育和科研計算機網 (China Education and Research Network; CERNET) (Chinese State Education Commission 國家教育委員會)
    (http://www.edu.cn/cernet/)
    Language: Chinese (GB), English.
    Description: Self description: "In December 1993, the China Education and Research Network (CERNET) project started to be planned. It is the first nation-wide education and research computer network in China. The CERNET project is funded by the Chinese government and directly managed by the Chinese State Education Commission. CERNET will connect all the universities and institutes in China in the near future and will connect high schools, middle schools, primary schools and other education and research entities by the end of this century. CERNET will link to the global Internet and will become a major part of the Chinese Internet community."
    Added/revised on 12.01.1998

  2. 中國科技網 (China Science and Technology Network; CSTNet) (Chinese Academy of Science 中國科學院)
    (http://www.cnc.ac.cn/)
    Language: Chinese (GB).
    Description: Evolved out of the National Computing and Networking Facilities Center (NCFC-) Project (founded 1989 by the State Planning Commission, Chinese Academy of Science, Peking Univeristy and Tsinghua University) and the Chinese Academy of Science Network (CASNet).
    Added/revised on 12.01.1998

  3. 中國互聯網 (ChinaNET) (Ministry of Post and Telecommunication 郵電部)
    (http://www.bta.net.cn/)
    Language: Chinese (GB).
    Description: Established in May 1995 by the Ministry of Post and Telecommunication, ChinaNET was the first commercial net in China.
    Added/revised on 12.01.1998

  4. 中國金橋信息網 (China Golden Bridge Network; ChinaGBN) (Ministry of Electronic Industry 電子工業部)
    (http://gb.com.cn/)
    Language: Chinese (GB) and English.
    Description: Founded 1996 by the Ministry of Electronic Industry, this commercial network is in direct concurrence to the ChinaNET.
    Added/revised on 08.08.1998

    Internet - Networks:   Up | China | Taiwan

    Taiwan

  5. 台灣學術網路 (Taiwan Academic Network; TANet)
    (http://www.edu.tw/)
    Language: Chinese (Big5) and English.
    Description: Sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Taiwan. [To be continued...]
    Added/revised on 11.01.1998

  6. 資訊工業策進會 (SeedNet)
    (http://www.seed.net.tw/)
    Language: Chinese (Big5).
    Description: Commercial network in Taiwan. [To be continued...]
    Note: Heavily loaden with graphics.
    Added/revised on 11.01.1998

  7. HiNet (Ministry of Post and Telecommunications, Taiwan)
    (http://www.hinet.net/)
    Language: Chinese (Big5).
    Description: The largest network in Taiwan, built by the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications and maintained on a commercial basis.
    Added/revised on 11.01.1998


    Internet:   Top | Networks | History & Development | Regulations & Control | On-line Sources

    History & Development

    Internet - Development:   Up | World Wide | Asia | China | Hong Kong | Taiwan | Singapore

    World Wide

  8. Very useful
    Internet Domain Survey (Internet Software Consortium/Network Wizards)
    (http://www.isc.org/ds/)
    Language: English.
    Description: Statistical data on the development of the Internet and the World Wide Web.
    Thanks to Martin Woesler (Los Angeles, USA) for URL update!
    Added 29 Sep 1999 (HL), last revised 05 Mar 2003 (JH).

  9. Very useful
    A Brief History of the Internet (Barry M. Leiner et al., Internet Society 1997, v. 3.1)
    (http://info.isoc.org/internet-history/brief.html)
    Language: English.
    Description: This paper was written by some of the major figures involved in the development and evolution of the Internet: Barry M. Leiner, Vinton G. Cerf, David D. Clark, Robert E. Kahn, Leonard Kleinrock, Daniel C. Lynch, Jon Postel, Larry G. Roberts, and Stephen Wolff.
    Added/revised on 12.02.1998

  10. Information Management: A Proposal (Tim Berners-Lee, CERN 1989)
    (http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html)
    Language: English.
    Description: The historical document in which Tim Berners-Lee for the first time draws an outline of a global hypertext system, the main characteristics of the World Wide Web he invented.
    Note: A hand conversion to HTML of the original MacWord document written in March 1989 and later redistributed unchanged apart from the date added in May 1990. Provided for historical interest only. The diagrams are missing. The text has not been changed, even to correct errors such as misnumbered figures or unfinished references.
    Added/revised on 12.02.1998

    Internet - Development:   Up | World Wide | Asia | China | Hong Kong | Taiwan | Singapore

    Asia

  11. Essential!
    Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS) (Institute of Chinese Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany)
    (http://www.sino.uni-heidelberg.de/dachs/).
    Language: English.
    Supplied note: "[... A] project aiming at capturing and archiving Internet resources reflecting public discourse in or about China that otherwise would be lost for future research. In contrast to the Internet Archive (http://www.archive.org/), DACHS should be able to more flexibly respond to events and issues relevant to the Chinese society. Download activities started in August 2001; so far [Jul 2003 - HL] we have collected about 630,000 files roughly corresponding to 9 GB in data. The collection includes Web sites, e-journals, films, snapshots of discussion boards, as well as hundreds of single documents. Topics covered are the 16th Party Congress of the CCP, China's and Taiwan's accession to the WTO, the September 11 terror attack, Falun gong, SARS, and many others. The digital archive is part of ChinaResource.org, a project of the Institute of Chinese Studies, University of Heidelberg, financed by the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach-Foundation."
    Site contents: (1) About DACHS (Introduction; Collection Policy; Legal Issues; Working Routines; Technical Infrastructure; Current Status); (2) Access (Metadata Search; Fulltext Search [under development - HL]; Table of Contents; Special Collections); (3) Publications; (4) Links; (5) Contact; (6) Management.
    Added 24 Jul 2003 (HL)

  12. The Internet in Asia (Singapore Internet Research Centre, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
    (http://sirc.blogspot.com/).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "We post news items and academic research concerning the social, cultural, economic, and political impact of the Internet and other new media technologies in Asia."
    Description: News blog on new media technologies in Asia.
    Archive: Monthly Archives go back to October 2003.
    Added 08 May 2004 (MA)

  13. Very useful
    Asian Studies and the WWW: a Quick Stocktaking at the Cusp of two Millennia (T. M. Ciolek, The Australian National University, RSPAS, Australia)
    (http://www.ciolek.com/PAPERS/pnc-taipei-98.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: Self description: "Since the introduction of the WWW in May 1991, this new electronic publishing/communication tool has both revolutionised and complicated the Asian Studies scholarship and librarianship. This paper reviews the current role of the WWW in Asia as well as in Asian Studies. It also summarises major positive and negative developments, identifies emerging long-term trends and offers predictions for the period 1999-2005." (Cited from the Asian Studies WWW Monitor May 1998).
    Note: The document is 100 Kb large.
    Added/revised on 02.06.1998 (HL)

  14. Very useful
    The Size, Content and Geography of Asian Cyberspace: An Initial Measurement (T.M. Ciolek, ANU, Australia, Sept. 1997)
    (http://www.ciolek.com/PAPERS/AsianCyberspace-97.html)
    Language: English.
    Description: In this article T.M. Ciolek, editor of the well known Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library and many other influential on-line resources, draws on a number of different sources to obtain some rudimentary data about the current scope of Asia-related on-line material.
    Added/revised on 18.02.1998 (HL)

    Internet - Development:   Up | World Wide | Asia | China | Hong Kong | Taiwan | Singapore

    China

  15. Kids, Cadres And "Cultists" All Love It: Growing Influence Of The Internet In China (USEST, U.S. Embassy Beijing, China, Mar 2001)
    (http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/netoverview.html).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "The Internet is revolutionizing the way Chinese communicate and interact. Government and business leaders recognize the medium as a key tool for economic reform, and encourage e-commerce and information technology investment. Intellectuals, dissidents, non-governmental groups -- and the Chinese government itself -- have all embraced the Internet to spread information, ideas and opinions. Authorities have reacted to limit "dangerous" content, and many are deterred from writing or seeking out sensitive material. Many others, however, see Beijing's efforts as speed bumps, not insurmountable barriers. Even the Chinese press is finding the Internet an important tool for circumventing otherwise tight controls. As China's market economy develops, the Internet will almost certainly become a more important, positive force in facilitating rights of Chinese users to be informed, and to be heard."
    Description: "A Mar 2001 report from U.S. Embassy Beijing. A follow up on Jan 2000 report "China's Internet 'Information Skirmish'" (http:// www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/webwar.htm)" - TM Ciolek.
    Site contents: (1) Internet Growth Quantified; (2) Who Uses the Net?; (3) Internet Business Key to Growth; (4) Leadership Dilemma; (5) New Regulations Ineffective; (6) Intellectuals and Dissidents Pile On; (7) Even the Bible is Online; (8) It's Harder to Kill News Stories; (9) But Still No Freedom of Speech or Press; (10) Government Using Internet to Reach the People; (11) Promoting Rule of Law; (12) The Internet and China's Commercial Expansion; (13) Conclusions.
    Resource suggested via Asian Studies WWW Monitor (30 Mar 2001) by David Cowhig, U.S. Embassy Beijing, China.
    Added 22 Apr 2001 (HL)

  16. Very useful
    PRC Internet: Cheaper, More Popular And More Chinese (U.S. Embassy Beijing, China, Oct. 1998)
    (http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/Inetcawb.htm).
    Language: English.
    Description: Self description: "Summary: Chinese efforts to popularize and boost the Chinese language presence on the Internet through a low-cost domestic-only service, a convenient non-registration Internet service added to the telephone bill, and increased Chinese language content will likely push the total number of Chinese users to over 5 million by the year 2000. [...] The PRC government strives to assure China's place in what it sees as the coming global 'information-based economy' by promoting information networks. [...]" Included are the following appendixes: (1) Chinese Search Engines and Web Sites; (2) June 1998 Internet Survey by the China Internet Information Center; (3) "The Knowledge-Based Economy" (summary of a People's Daily article, October 10, 1998).
    Added/revised on 12.11.1998 (HL)

  17. Very useful
    Latest Development of Internet in Mainland China (Zhu Qiang, Peking Univ. Library, China 1995)
    (http://lark.cc.ukans.edu/~eastasia/paper01.html)
    Language: English.
    Description: A lecture given at the CALA 1995 Annual Conference in Chicago by Zhu Qiang, Deputy Director and Associate Professor at Peking Univ. Library, China. Although somewhat outdated, the article gives a good account on the development of Internet in China up to 1995.
    Added 18 Feb 1998 (HL), last revised 05 Mar 2003 (JH).

    Internet - Development:   Up | World Wide | Asia | China | Hong Kong | Taiwan | Singapore

    Hong Kong

    ! under construction !

    Internet - Development:   Up | World Wide | Asia | China | Hong Kong | Taiwan | Singapore

    Taiwan

    ! under construction !

    Internet - Development:   Up | World Wide | Asia | China | Hong Kong | Taiwan | Singapore

    Singapore

  18. Very useful
    Taming the Internet Wilderness: Collaborative Strategies for the Southeast Asian Scholarly Networks (T.M. Ciolek, ANU, Australia, Nov. 1997)
    (http://www.ciolek.com/PAPERS/SEAsianCyberspace-97.html)
    Language: English.
    Description: Summary: "Firstly, the paper will look at statistical data on the numbers and the nature of Internet sites relevant to South East Asian research and teaching. Secondly, the article will summarise the main shortcomings of electronic information pertaining to that region. Thirdly, it will look at possible actions and strategies which may be used to remedy these shortcomings."
    Added/revised on 18.02.1998 (HL)


    Internet:   Top | Networks | History & Development | Regulations & Control | On-line Sources

    Regulations and Control

    Internet - Regulations:   Up | China | Hong Kong

    China

  19. People's Republic of China - Controls tighten as Internet activism grows (Amnesty International, 28 January 2004)
    (http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGASA170012004?open&of=ENG-2S2).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "This document updates Amnesty International's first major reports on the Internet in China, People's Republic of China: State Control of the Internet in China, ASA 17/007/2002 and People's Republic of China: State Control of the Internet in China: Appeal Cases, ASA 17/046/2002, both published in November 2002."
    Description: This is the current (2004) Amnesty report on the Internet in China. (Single page dcument, AI INDEX: ASA 17/001/2004, 28 January 2004)
    Site contents: (1) Introduction; (2) Increased detentions of Internet activists - the cost to the individual; (3) Detention of Internet users in connection with SARS; (4) Increased controls and surveillance of Internet users; (5) Corporate responsibility and Internet freedoms; (6) Appeal cases; (7) APPENDIX 1: Amnesty International recorded a total of 54 people believed to be in detention for Internet-related offences as of 7 January 2004; (8) APPENDIX 2: List of those who have been detained for Internet-related offences and died in custody; (9) Related documents.
    Added 02 May 2004 (MA)

    Internet - Regulations- China:   Up | Fulltext Laws | Reports & Analysis | News Articles
    Fulltext Laws
    Internet - Regulations- China:   Up | Fulltext Laws | Reports & Analysis | News Articles
    Reports & Analysis
  20. Useful
    The List of Filtered Items (EastSouthWestNorth, zonaeuropa.com, 9 Sep 2004)
    (http://zonaeuropa.com/20040902_1.htm).
    Language: English.
    Supplied note: "For anybody interested in sensitive media, banned political terms, insulting variations of names of politicians or variations of political terms, slander or just interested in studying some Chinese slang and obscenities, here is a list of 'some' of those words, terms and names as filtered by the [Chinese - HL] government in the net."
    Description: This page is part of the anonymous weblog 東南西北 EastSouthWestNorth, part of the Zona Europa website. The blog covers a broader range of topics, mostly related to media, internet, and human rights.
    Site contents: (1) Introduction; (2) Table of filtered items; (3) addendum by Andy Greenberg 5 Oct 2004.
    Resource suggested by Natascha Gentz, Chinese Department, University of Frankfurt, Germany.
    Added 28 Jul 2005 (MA)

  21. Essential!
    Empirical Analysis of Internet Filtering in China (Jonathan Zittrain and Benjamin Edelman, Berkman Center for Internet & Society, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA, USA, March 2003)
    (http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/filtering/china/).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "The authors are collecting data on the methods, scope, and depth of selective barriers to Internet access through Chinese networks. Tests from May 2002 through November 2002 indicate at least four distinct and independently operable methods of Internet filtering, with a documentable leap in filtering sophistication beginning in September 2002. The authors document thousands of sites rendered inaccessible using the most common and longstanding filtering practice. These sites were found through connections to the Internet by telephone dial-up link and through proxy servers in China. Once so connected, the authors attempted to access approximately two hundred thousand web sites. The authors tracked 19,032 web sites that were inaccessible from China on multiple occasions while remaining accessible from the United States. Such sites contained information about news, politics, health, commerce, and entertainment. [...] The authors conclude (1) that the Chinese government maintains an active interest in preventing users from viewing certain web content, both sexually explicit and non-sexually explicit; (2) that it has managed to configure overlapping nationwide systems to effectively -- if at times irregularly -- block such content from users who do not regularly seek to circumvent such blocking; and (3) that such blocking systems are becoming more refined even as they are likely more labor- and technology-intensive to maintain than cruder predecessors."
    Description: Concise yet excellent research paper!
    Site contents: (1) Overview; (2) Methodology; (3) Analysis & Summary Statistics; (4) Conclusions; (5) Technical Appendix; (6) Specific Blocked Sites; (7) Highlights; (8) Analysis by Google Keyword; (9) Related Projects (Real-Time Testing of Internet Filtering in China; Replacement of Google with Alternative Search Systems in China; Documentation of Internet Filtering in Saudi Arabia; Web Sites Sharing IP Addresses: Prevalence and Significance; Documentation of Internet Filtering Worldwide; Other Resources on Internet Filtering in China).
    Resource suggested by Michel Hockx, Centre of Chinese Studies, SOAS, London, UK.
    Added 29 Sep 2004 (HL)

  22. Essential!
    The Internet under Surveillance: Obstacles to the free flow of information online (Reporters sans frontièrs, Paris, France, Jun 2003)
    (http://www.rsf.fr/rubrique.php3?id_rubrique=378).
    Language: English, French, Spanish, German.
    Self description: "The Internet is the bane of all dictatorial regimes, but even in democracies, new anti-terrorism laws have tightened government control of it and undermined the principle of protecting journalistic sources. This report is about attitudes to the Internet by the powerful in 60 countries, between spring 2001 and spring 2003. The preface is by Vinton G. Cerf, who is often called the "father" of the Internet. [... Report on China:] The number of Internet users doubles nearly every six months and the number of websites every year. But this dizzying growth is matched by the authorities' energetic attempts to monitor, censor and repress Internet activity, with tough laws, jailing cyber-dissidents, blocking access to websites, monitoring online forums and shutting down cybercafés."
    Description: Four out of five jailed Internet activists world wide are from China. This latest report makes it possible to compare PRC policies with those in other countries, including Singapore, Japan, the US, the UK, Germany, as well as other "more restrictive" countries such as Vietnam (in prison: 5), the Maldives (in prison: 4), Malaysia (in prison: 1) or Tunesia (in prison: 1).
    Added 20 Jun 2003 (HL)

  23. Kids, Cadres And "Cultists" All Love It: Growing Influence Of The Internet In China (USEST, U.S. Embassy Beijing, China, Mar 2001)
    (http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/netoverview.html).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "The Internet is revolutionizing the way Chinese communicate and interact. Government and business leaders recognize the medium as a key tool for economic reform, and encourage e-commerce and information technology investment. Intellectuals, dissidents, non-governmental groups -- and the Chinese government itself -- have all embraced the Internet to spread information, ideas and opinions. Authorities have reacted to limit "dangerous" content, and many are deterred from writing or seeking out sensitive material. Many others, however, see Beijing's efforts as speed bumps, not insurmountable barriers. Even the Chinese press is finding the Internet an important tool for circumventing otherwise tight controls. As China's market economy develops, the Internet will almost certainly become a more important, positive force in facilitating rights of Chinese users to be informed, and to be heard."
    Description: "A Mar 2001 report from U.S. Embassy Beijing. A follow up on Jan 2000 report "China's Internet 'Information Skirmish'" (www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/webwar.htm)" - TM Ciolek.
    Site contents: (1) Internet Growth Quantified; (2) Who Uses the Net?; (3) Internet Business Key to Growth; (4) Leadership Dilemma; (5) New Regulations Ineffective; (6) Intellectuals and Dissidents Pile On; (7) Even the Bible is Online; (8) It's Harder to Kill News Stories; (9) But Still No Freedom of Speech or Press; (10) Government Using Internet to Reach the People; (11) Promoting Rule of Law; (12) The Internet and China's Commercial Expansion; (13) Conclusions.
    Resource suggested via Asian Studies WWW Monitor (30 Mar 2001) by David Cowhig, U.S. Embassy Beijing, China.
    Added 22 Apr 2001 (HL)

  24. China's Internet "Information Skirmish" (U.S. Embassy, Beijing, China, Jan. 2000)
    (http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/webwar.htm).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "Summary: The Chinese government and some Chinese both inside and outside China have been fighting an "information skirmish" on the Internet for over three years. The Chinese government filters the flow of information into China. Dissident groups mail thousands of electronic periodicals into China. They constantly switch originating addresses to evade filtering. Some foreign websites are blocked but Chinese surfers often use proxy servers to evade the Great Red Firewall. Email from China cannot reach certain foreign addresses but using a foreign email account (such as Hotmail) can solve that problem. The old Chinese saying "For every measure taken on high there is a counter measure down below" is illustrated by the wide use of anti-filtering countermeasures. Many Chinese government rules such as the October 1999 net rules banning foreign news articles on Chinese websites have short half-lives. Even banned books sometimes appear in full text on PRC web sites. "
    Site contents: (1) PRC Government, Dissidents in Net "Information Skirmish"; (2) Many Use Proxy Servers to Evade the Great Red Firewall; (3) Picture.exe Virus Mails Encryption Keys Back to China; (4) Chinese Language E-Publications From Abroad Come to China; (5) VOA [i.e. Voice of America - HL] E-Mail Broadcasts Are Usually Blocked; (6) Internet Forums, Books Online, Military Websites and ICQ; (7) Online Chatting, Telephony Opens The Door Ever Wider; (8) October Ban on Foreign News Stories on Web Sites Has Faded; (9) The Short Half-Life of Chinese Regulations; (10) Banned Books on Chinese Government Websites.
    Resource suggested by David Cowhig via H-Asia.
    Added 07 Aug 2000 (HL)

  25. New PRC Internet Regulation (U.S. Embassy, Beijing, China, Jan. 1998)
    (http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/netreg.htm)
    Language: English.
    Description: This page includes an English translation of the Internet Regulations from Dec. 30, 1997. Self description: "Summary: Chinese government sensitivities about control of information coming into China are reflected in the strict controls it maintains over publishing, broadcasting, and electronic communications, including the Internet. The new PRC Internet regulation adopted on December 30 does not appear significantly different from the interim regulation it replaced. [...] Embassy contacts at local Internet service providers, U.S. Internet software companies, and technical advisors to the PRC government all downplayed the new regulation as essentially clarifications of previous interim regulations, with responsibilities, procedures and penalties spelled-out in greater detail. At the same time, officials maintain that PRC policy is to encourage and popularize use of the Internet, fully recognizing that this enables potential access to proscribed information. As one official pointed out: if determined enough, a person will find a way to obtain pornography. It is impossible to stop them, although they can be arrested later."
    Added 18 Aug 1998 (HL), last revised 10 Mar 2003 (JH).

  26. PRC Net Dreams: Is Control Possible? (U.S. Embassy, Beijing, China, Sept. 1997)
    (http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/infocon.htm)
    Language: English.
    Description: Self description: "Summary: In the future Ministry of Telecommunications (MPT) officials want to reserve access to foreign Internet web sites for people (such as academics) who have a need for international communications. In their view, Internet service providers will wither away, replaced by a state-owned electronic information network. However, there is an alternative view. An Internet entrepreneur and State Council information policy advisor Edward Zeng says that internal PRC government debate on the future of Internet was settled three months ago in favor of openness."
    Added 18 Aug 1998

    Internet - Regulations- China:   Up | Fulltext Laws | Reports & Analysis | News Articles
    News Articles
  27. Useful
    30.Dec.97: China's Net regulations begin (The Computer Network (CNET), USA)
    (http://www.news.com/News/Item/0,4,17692,00.html)
    Language: English.
    Description: "BEIJING--China clamped sweeping new controls on the Internet today, warning that the network was being used to leak state secrets and to spread 'harmful information'. [...]" (Reuters, 30.Dec.97) This article is more detailed than the one below.
    Added/revised on 04.01.1998

  28. Interesting
    30.Dec.97: China Issues New Net Controls (Wired News)
    (http://www.wired.com/news/news/email/other/politics/story/9423.html)
    Language: English.
    Description: "BEIJING - China clamped sweeping new controls on its citizens' use of the Internet today, with the government alleging the network is being used to leak state secrets and to spread 'harmful information'. [...]" (Reuters, 30.Dec.97)
    Added/revised on 31.12.1997

  29. Interesting
    30.Dec.97: Hong Kong free of China Net controls (The Computer Network (CNET), USA)
    (http://www.news.com/News/Item/0%2C4%2C17694%2C00.html?nd)
    Language: English.
    Description: "HONG KONG--Communist China's sweeping new controls on the World Wide Web won't affect Hong Kong's Internet surfers and providers, Anthony Wong, director general of the territory's telecommunications, said today. [...]" (Reuters, 30.Dec.97)
    Added/revised on 04.01.1998

  30. Useful
    9.Feb.96: China places roadblocks on the Internet (Andrea Koppel, CNN, USA)
    (http://cnn.com/WORLD/9602/china_information/index.html)
    Language: English.
    Description: "BEIJING, China (CNN) -- China's government has slapped a series of new regulations that control content and restrict access to the World Wide Web, making roaming the Internet difficult for its people. What's more, Chinese businesses will no longer be permitted to electronically import financial news from abroad. [...]" (CNN, 9. Feb.96)
    Added/revised on 19.02.1998 (HL)

    Internet - Regulations:   Up | China | Hong Kong

    Hong Kong

  31. Useful
    30.Dec.97: Hong Kong free of China Net controls (The Computer Network (CNET), USA)
    (http://www.news.com/News/Item/0%2C4%2C17694%2C00.html?nd)
    Language: English.
    Description: "HONG KONG--Communist China's sweeping new controls on the World Wide Web won't affect Hong Kong's Internet surfers and providers, Anthony Wong, director general of the territory's telecommunications, said today. [...]" (Reuters, 30.Dec.97)
    Added/revised on 04.01.1998


    Internet:   Top | Networks | History & Development | Regulations & Control | On-line Sources

    On-line Sources

    Internet - Sources:   Up | China | Hong Kong | Taiwan

    China

  32. Essential!
    Information & Telecommunications in China on the Internet (Zixiang (Alex) Tan, Syracuse University, New York, USA)
    (http://web.syr.edu/~ztan/China-tel.html).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "This site contains comments, references, and links to information sources relating to policy, economic, social, and industry aspects of information and telecommunications in China. [...] The intent is to provide top-level pointers to other WWW servers both inside and outside China as well as to present a comprehensive analysis of relevant issues based on my research."
    Description: Together with Milton Mueller, Alex Tan is the author of "China in the Information Age: Telecommunications and the Dilemmas of Reform" (Praeger 1997). He received a Ph. D. degree in Telecommunications Policy and Management from Rutgers University in New Jersey, holds both a Bachelor and a Master degree in Electronic Engineering from Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, and has a second Master degree in Communications and Information Technology Policy from SPRU of the University of Sussex in UK. Now he is Assistant Professor at the School of Information Studies, Syracuse University, NY, USA.
    Site contents: (1) What is New; (2) Government Agency; (3) Policy & Regulation; (4) R & D Project; (5) University & Institute; (6) Operator; (7) Manufacturer; (8) Association; (9) Consultant Firm; (10) Internet in China; (11) Statistics; (12) Publication; (13) Conference & Event; (14) Other Links.
    Note: Frames capable browser needed!
    Added/revised on 29. Mar. 1999 (HL)

  33. Very useful
    A PRC Net Good: Guides To Internet Resources (U.S. Embassy, Beijing, China, Feb. 2000)
    (http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/netgood.html).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "Summary: The continuing explosive growth of the Chinese Internet is making massive amounts of information about all aspects of Chinese politics, economics, science and technology readily available. Students of the Internet and of the Chinese language will find recent guides to Chinese Internet resources helpful. Search engines on full-text newspaper websites such as the People's Daily make it easy to track statements by leaders, their biographical information and specific issues. [...] This report introduces several books on Internet resources, information security/hacking, and electronic commerce that have appeared in China over the past several months. Although the net itself remains the best guide to the net, these books are guides to many resources including newspapers, bulletin boards, radio stations, databases, software, and Internet telephone conversations that will be useful to all students of China and the Chinese language."
    Resource suggested by David Cowhig via H-Asia.
    Added 06 Aug 2000 (HL)

  34. Useful
    Information Superhighway: China (David Wen, DW InfoServer, Australia)
    (http://www.dwinfoserver.com/otto/highway.html#China)
    Language: English.
    Description: Links to and short comments on China's Internet backbones, telecommunications, and government information infrastructure policies.
    Added/revised on 18.02.1998 (HL)

    Internet - Sources:   Up | China | Hong Kong | Taiwan

    Hong Kong

    ! under construction !

    Internet - Sources:   Up | China | Hong Kong | Taiwan

    Taiwan

  35. Very Useful
    Taiwan Network Information Center (TWNIC) 台 灣 網 路 資 訊 中 心 (Ministry of Education, Taiwan)
    (http://www.twnic.net/)
    Language: Chinese (Big5), parts also available in English.
    Description: Contains a wealth of information and data about Internet in Taiwan.
    Added/revised on 11.01.1998


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with support from the Institute of Chinese Studies (Heidelberg University), the Berlin State Library, and the German Research Foundation


© Hanno E. Lecher 1995-2009

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