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Language

edited by Hanno E. Lecher
Last updated on 23 Feb 2009, 34 main entries


Language:   General | Linguistics | Language Learning | Dictionaries
Related:   Language Programs in China | Course Syllabi | Academic Institutions)

    General

  1. Essential!
    Ethnologue. Languages of the World (Barbara F. Grimes, ed.; Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc., Dallas, Texas)
    (http://www.sil.org/ethnologue/).
    Language: English.
    Description: The site gives detailed information on all the languages and dialects spoken in - among other countries - the PR China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and Singapore. Included are basic demographic data on the different minorities in these countries. The site is the internet version of the following book: Barbara F. Grimes (ed.): Ethnologue. Languages of the world. Dallas/Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics 1996 (13th edition).

  2. Essential!
    Marjorie Chan's China Links (Ohio State Univ., USA)
    (http://chinalinks.osu.edu/).
    Language: English.
    Description: The best guide on Chinese language and linguistics available on the Net, extensive and well sorted. The links include short descriptions.
    Site contents: (1) Search Engines, Chinese Studies, E-Texts, and Netnews (Search Engines: English and Chinese; Search this website!; General Resources for Chinese Studies; Traditional Chinese Culture; Searchable and Archived Classical Chinese Texts; Chinese Netnews and E-magazines); (2) Chinese Language Software and Audio/Video Programs (Chinese Language Software: FAQ's, Gen. Info, Freeware, etc. - Online Software Companies - Online Third-Party Vendors - Fonts for DOS/Windows/Mac; Chinese Real-Time Audio and Video Programs); (3) Chinese Language and Linguistics (Teaching & Learning Resources; Chinese Language & Linguistics Resources (incl. Unicode); Chinese Dialectology; Associations; Conferences; Journals); (4) General Linguistics and Internet Resources (Internet Resources for General Linguistics; Linguistics Software and Online Vendors; Online General Reference Tools; General Internet Resources; Web-Authoring Guides and Tutorials; Web Tools and Other Internet-Related Applications).
    Added 12 Jan 1998 (HL), last revised 28 Jan 2005 (MA/HL)

  3. Very useful
    Chinese Language Related Information Page (Carlos McEvilly, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA)
    (http://www.webcom.com/~bamboo/chinese/chinese.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: This page is a "[...] comprehensive navigational tool pointing you to Chinese-language-related resources. The intended audience is anyone who has an interest in Chinese, including speakers and students of Chinese languages, China scholars, Chinese teachers, translators, linguists, East Asian librarians, and computer programmers" (self description). Site contents: Viewing and Listening to Chinese on the WWW; Chinese Language Study Courses; Links to Chinese-Language Related FTP Sites; Sources of Chinese Text Files; Chinese Educational Resources; Scholarly and Linguistic Resources on Chinese; Resources for East Asiatic Librarianship; Information about Programming Chinese-Language Software; Chinese-Language Radio Broadcasts.
    Added 12 Jan 1998 (HL)

  4. Essential!
    Pinyin.info - a guide to the writing of Mandarin Chinese in romanization (Mark Swofford, Banqiao, Taiwan)
    (http://pinyin.info/).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "Most of what most people think they know about Chinese -- especially when it comes to Chinese characters -- is wrong. This website is aimed at contributing to a better understanding of the Chinese languages and how romanization can be used to write languages traditionally associated with Chinese characters (such as Japanese, Korean, and especially Mandarin Chinese). Through the generosity of many authors and publishers, this site offers an extensive selection of readings related to how Chinese characters do (and don't!) work, how romanization has been regarded, how the Chinese languages differ, how regarding Chinese characters as "ideograms" or "ideographs" is incorrect, and related topics."
    Site contents: (1) Home; (2) Readings; (3) Rules (for using Pinyin); (4) Tools (Romanization tools; Pinyin and Unicode); (5) Systems (Romanization systems; Non-romanization systems); (6) News (searchable); (7) Links (Taiwan's romanization situation; Pinyin-related professional software; Language-related sites; Taiwan-related sites; Computer and Internet-related links; Other; Book-related links); (8) Contact.
    Resource suggested by Deike Zimmann, Hamburg University, Germany.
    Added 07 Feb 2005 (HL)

  5. Very useful
    Language and Politics in Modern China working papers (Indiana University, Indiana East Asian Working Paper Series, USA)
    (http://www.lu.se/ace/programmes/langpol.html)
    Language: English.
    Description: Self description: "The Language and Politics in Modern China working papers form part of a collaborative research project, 'Keywords of the Chinese Revolution: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in 20th-Century China', funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Pacific Cultural Foundation. [...] The Keywords project seeks to present an account of the ways that the language of politics has shaped and, in turn, has been reshaped by the Chinese Revolution from the early decades of this century to the present." The texts presented are available as full texts.
    Added 29 Mar 1999 (HL)


    Language:   General | Linguistics | Language Learning | Dictionaries
    Related:   Language Programs in China | Course Syllabi | Academic Institutions)

    Linguistics

  6. Scholarly & Linguistic Resources on Chinese
    (http://www.webcom.com/~bamboo/chinese/linguist.html).

  7. Useful
    Linguasphere (Linguasphere Observatory, Wales, UK)
    (http://www.linguasphere.org/).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "The Linguasphere Observatory is a research network devoted to the classification of the world's languages and dialects. [...] The purpose of the website is not only to provide a free information-service, but also to provide a forum for the gathering and collation of new and revised data on the world's languages and dialects."
    Description: The Extracts section displays extracts from the Linguasphere Register of the World's Languages and Speech Communities, including a PDF file on the Sino-Indian phylosector with emphasis on Yue/Cantonese.
    Site contents: Concept; World Language Register; Linguasphere Observatory; What is a Language?; Languages of the World; A Multilingual World; Getting Involved; Bookshelf; Resource Databases; Newspage; Mapbase; Links; Download Extracts.
    Added/revised on 27 Feb 2000 (HL)


    Language:   General | Linguistics | Language Learning | Dictionaries
    Related:   Language Programs in China | Course Syllabi | Academic Institutions)

    Language Learning

  8. Essential!
    Learning Chinese Online (California State University, Long Beach, USA)
    (http://www.csulb.edu/~txie/online.htm).
    Language: English, Chinese (Big5).
    Description: The essential list to sites needed to learn Chinese, provided by Tianwei Xie, Dept. of Asian and Asian American Studies, California State University, Lomg Beach. Site contains links under the following topics: Learning Pronunciation; Learning Conversations; Learning Characters; Learning Grammar; Reading Materials; Listening; On-line Dictionaries; Testing Your Chinese; Other.
    Last revised 01 Feb 2003 (JH).

  9. Very useful
    On-line Chinese Tools
    (http://www.mandarintools.com/).
    By Eric E. Peterson. A very useful tool for Chinese learners, this site contains: Character Dictionary (look up by English, pinyin, radical/stroke, and Cantonese); Chinese Character Flashcards; Add Pinyin to Web Documents (a CGI program that will someday have a Java front end); Big5 <-> GB Converter (a Java applet where you can input text of one encoding into one window and have the converted text appear in a different window); Convert Web Documents between GB and Big5 (type in the web address of a page in Big5 and have it come up in GB, and vice versa); Romanization Converter (Pinyin, Wade Giles, etc.); Western-Chinese Calendar Converter (under development).
    Added/revised on 19 Feb 2000 (HL)

  10. Internet Based Chinese Teaching & Learning
    (http://chinese.bendigo.latrobe.edu.au/).
    Language: English.
    Description: Chinese language courses, offered by the La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia. Enrolment costs for each course (Feb. 1997): about US$ 370.- (Certificate of Completion included).

  11. Chinese Learner's Alternative Page (CLAP)
    (http://www.sinologic.com/clap.html).
    "CLAP is a one-of-a-kind magazine with lots of info on Chinese language and culture not available anywhere else." Included are the following topics: Language; Movies; Art & Literature; Music; Living; Food.

  12. Chinese Language Teachers Association (Links) (CLTA Headquarters: University of Hawaii, USA)
    (http://clta.osu.edu/CLTAlinks/links.htm).
    Language: English.
    Description: Part of the Chinese Language Teachers Association website, this site contains unannotated links related to the following topics: (1) Chinese Language and Culture Organizations; (2) Language Organizations; (3) Institutions Teaching Chinese; (4) Study Abroad/Internship Programs; (5) Sources on Chinese Teaching and Learning; (6) Chinese Computing and Other Technical Information; (7) Sites with Extensive Links to Chinese-related Topics; (8) Employment Opportunity Listings; (9) Computer Aided Language Learning Reviews.
    Note: Frames capable browser needed!
    Added on 02 Aug 1999 (HL), last revised 10 Apr 2004 (HL)


    Language:   General | Linguistics | Language Learning | Dictionaries
    Related:   Language Programs in China | Course Syllabi | Academic Institutions)

    Dictionaries

  13. Very useful
    A Web of Online Dictionaries
    (http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/rbeard/diction.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: Compiled by Robert Beard at Bucknell University, USA, this is an extensive list of links to online language dictionaries and lexicons.
    Added/revised on 17 May 1999 (HL)

  14. Useful
    Language Dictionaries and Translators (Rivendell International Communications, USA)
    (http://www.word2word.com/dictionary.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: An index of online dictionaries for a lot of languages, Chinese included.
    Note: Frames capable browser needed!
    Last revised 12 Nov 2001 (HL)

  15. Essential!
    Word Lists and Online Glossaries/Dictionaries (Marjorie Chan, Dept. of East Asian Langs. and Lits., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio, USA)
    (http://chinalinks.osu.edu/cdict.htm).
    Language: English, incl. some Chinese (Big5).
    Description: Part of Marjorie Chan's excellent China Links site, this page is a very well annotated list of Chinese and Japanese dictionaries and word lists.
    Site contents: (1) Chinese word lists/dictionaries on the Web; (2) Chinese online searchable dictionaries; (3) Jabanese word lists/dictionaries on the Web; (4) Japanese online dictionaries; (5) Internal codes for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK).
    Added 06 Mar 1999 (HL), last revised 28 Jan 2005 (MA/HL)

  16. Essential!
    康熙字典網上版 (Online Kangxi character dictionary) (Ed./corp.: n/a)
    (http://www.kangxizidian.com/).
    Language: Chinese (UTF-8).
    Description: This site offers free online access to the 47.000+ characters in the dictionary, first published in 1716, based on a reprint of the Tongwen shuju 同文書局 edition (1895-97). Users can search for single characters or their Unicode code-points (UTF-32, omitting leading zeros), browse the contents by radical, or simply "leaf" through the dictionary.
    Only the headwords (lemmata) can be searched, not the commentaries or glosses. For each character the page number where it appears in the dictionary and its Unicode number are given.
    For a limited number of characters (i.e. 中 / 4E2D) the dictionary entry has been digitised (typed). Users are encouraged to add more information about single characters in the forum.
    Contents: (1) 首頁 (main page); (2) 原圖掃描版 (scanned originals); (3) 部首檢索 (radicals search [not yet operational as of May 2006 - M.A.]); (4) 全文檢索 (full text search); (5) 論壇 (forum); (6) 聯絡 (contact).
    Added 28 May 2006 (MA)

  17. Essential!
    Chinese Characters Dictionary Web (Rick Harbaugh, USA)
    (http://zhongwen.com/zi.htm).
    Language: Intruductions in English, input in English and Chinese (Big5, GB, JIS, GIF).
    Description: Rick Harbaugh, Author of the Chinese Character Genealogy, has interlinked the most important Chinese character dictionaries on the web, including the WWW CJK-English Dictionary (JIS Japanese code), the Buddhist Dictionary (JIS Japanese code), the Cantonese Pronunciation Dictionary (Big-5 Chinese code), Taiwanese Dictionary (Big-5 Chinese code), Guoyu Cidian (Big-5 Chinese code), the WWW JDIC (JIS Japanese code), Chinese Character Dictionary, the Tower of Babel etymology database (Big-5 Chinese code), the Unicode Unihan database, and his own Chinese Character Genealogy. The result: Just enter the character and go directly to any of them. Since the dictionaries are interlinking at a character-to-character level, you can quickly jump across dictionaries to check the same character entry elsewhere without having to search again.
    Note: Frames capable browser needed!
    Added/revised on 28.04.1998 (HL)

  18. Essential!
    Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage = 當代漢英詞典 (Lin Yutang and Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, China)
    (http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/Lindict/).
    Language: English and Chinese (Big5).
    Self description: "The production of the Web edition of Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage is based on the first edition of the work [...] published in 1972 by the Chinese University Press. The dictionary comprises a total of 8,169 "首字" head characters, together with 44,407 explanatory entries of grammatical usage and 40,379 entries of Chinese words or phrases."
    Description: This is the best Chinese-English (English-Chinese) dictionary available online. It offers simple and combined search, English and Chinese search terms can be searched at one time using boolean AND and OR. Search results are displayed in order of the "head characters", followed by "grammatical categories", characters, pronunciation [pinyin with tones], grammatical usage, and english meaning. The dictionary can also be browsed by using the radical, pinyin, and english index pages.
    Site contents: (1) [Main]; (2) User's Guide; (3) Radical Index; (4) Pinyin Index; (5) English Index; (6) Abbreviations; (7) Project Team; (8) Bug Report.
    Added 23 Mar 2005 (MA), last revised 31 Mar 2006 (HL)

  19. Very useful
    Chinese English dictionary (Indra Kurniawan, Arlington, TX, USA)
    (http://dictionary.kaide.net/).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "(1) Based on CEDICT which contains more that 23000 entries and UNIHAN which contains more than 27000 characters information. Currently 20370 characters are being used from UNIHAN since the others are neither renderable nor Chinese characters. (2) Compatible with traditional and simplified Chinese characters. (3) User friendly interface with multiple windows for convenience and productivity. (4) Characters lookup by copying and pasting Chinese character or by typing Chinese character. (5) Characters lookup by radicals and number of strokes. (6) Chinese vocabularies lookup by Pinyin, Cantonese and Japanese pronunciation. (Cantonese and Japanese pronunciation is still in development; vocabularies lookup is based on CEDICT, future version will support characters lookup by Pinyin from UNIHAN as well as a Pinyin index table). (7) Chinese vocabularies lookup by English. (Currently is based on CEDICT only). (8) Can be used for Japanese-English Kanji dictionary."
    Description: Although no longer actively maintained, this is a very practical dictionary for both Chinese characters and words.
    Site contents: (1) Features; (2) Requirements; (3) Limitations and Know Issues; (4) User Manual; (5) Dictionary; (6) Related Links; (7) Future Developments; (8) License Agreement and Disclaimer.
    Resource suggested by Indra Kurniawan, Arlington, TX, USA.
    Added 16 Jan 2005 (HL)

  20. Very useful
    CEDICT: Chinese-English Dictionary (Started by Paul Denisowski, now maintained by volunteers at mandarintools.com)
    (http://www.mandarintools.com/cedict.html).
    Language: Chinese (Big5, GB), English.
    Self description: "This website is a continuation of the CEDICT project started by Paul Denisowski. It aims to provide a complete Chinese to English dictionary with pronunciation in pinyin for the Chinese characters. CEDICT is merely a text file, other programs are needed to search and display it. CEDICT was inspired by the EDICT Japanese dictionary project of Jim Breen."
    Description: As of May 2004 the Big5 version contained 25,807 entries with 26,404 definitions, the GB version 23,512 entries with 24,345 definitions. The project is meant as an open collaborative endeavor, submissions for new or enlarged entries are highly encouraged.
    Site contents: The dictionary can be used as a local add-on on your machine (desktop, laptop, PalmPilot, WAP) or on-line.
    Added 05 May 2004 (HL)

  21. Very useful
    Chinese-English-Pinyin Online Lexicon (Pristine Communications, Taiwan)
    (http://www.pristine.com.tw/lexicon/).
    Language: English and Chinese (Big5, Pinyin).
    Supplied note: "A community service project [which] showcase[s] our online development capabilities especially in the area of language and Internet technology. It is our intention to share this resource with E-C/C-E translators and scholars [...]. The Pristine Lexicon currently contains over 120,000 entries [...] concentrated in specialized areas of technology and science, proper nouns, and business."
    Note: You may perform a maximum of five searches on the Pristine Lexicon service as an unregistered user, after which you will be prompted to fill out a registration form. Registration is free, and is required to make submissions for new entries to the Pristine Lexicon.
    Frames capable browser needed!
    Resource suggested via the Asian Studies WWW Monitor (01 Apr 1999) by Tammy Turner (tammy@pristine.com.tw) and Steve Leibo (leibo@cnsvax.albany.edu).
    Added/revised on 24. Apr. 1999 (HL)

  22. Essential!
    Glossary of Chinese Islamic Terms (Jianping WANG, Curzon Press 2001)
    (http://130.225.203.37/gems/Titles127001/Wang_Glossary.pdf).
    Language: English.
    Supplied note: "NIAS is on the point of sending to press a long-awaited 'Glossary of Chinese Islam' by Jianping Wang. This deals primarily but not exclusively with the Hui and readers will find a wealth of information on not only the religion but also the social life and organization of Muslims in China."
    Self description: "This work focusses on Islamic terms of Middle Eastern origin and is the most comprehensive glossary of its kind to date, taking terms from a wide variety of local gazetteers and archives, newspapers, books and periodicals. It is also the first to fully match the Chinese term (stated in Chinese script and pinyin) to its Arabic or Persian counterpart (stated in Arabic script with Latin transcription)."
    Description: A searchable PDF-file of the book to be published by Curzon Press in 2001 (ISBN: 0-7007-0620-8). Currently (Jan. 2001) only the glossary is available on-line, but the other parts will follow as soon as available.
    Site contents: (1) Preface; (2) Introduction (an overview of Islam in China); (3) Glossary; (4) Chinese index; (5) Arabic index.
    Note: The file is in PDF-format, has a size of 1015K, and is not printable.
    Resource suggested via the Asian Studies WWW Monitor (22 Dec 2000) by Gerald Jackson (NIAS, Copenhagen, Denmark).
    Added 28 Dec 2000 (HL)

  23. Essential!
    Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (Charles Muller, Toyo Gakuen University, Japan)
    (http://www.acmuller.net/ddb/index.html).
    Language: English and UTF-8-encoded CJK characters.
    Self description: "This dictionary is a compilation of Buddhist terms, texts, temple, schools, persons, etc. that are found in East Asian Buddhist canonical sources. While there is obviously a basic layer of East Asian terminology, since much of what East Asian Buddhists have written about is the Buddhism of India, Central Asia, and Tibet, the content of this database/dictionary/encyclopedia/translation glossary is pan-Buddhist in character. This project, which was initiated in 1986, is to the best of our knowledge, the most comprehensive compilation of Buddhist terms presently available in English. It is an ongoing project, that is being actively supported through the collaboration of a number of scholars in the field of Buddhist Studies. [... S]tarting with this most recent implementation, users have access to a supplementary comprehensive index of East Asian Buddhist lexical and bibliographical sources as part of a standard full-text search of the dictionary itself. This makes the DDB a truly indispensable resource for scholars and students of Buddhism."
    Added on 08 Aug 1998, last revised 17 Nov 2001 (HL)

  24. Very useful
    在线佛学辞典 (FoDict - Online Buddhist Dictionary) (中华佛典宝库 Zhonghua fodian baoku; 厦门市南普陀寺 Xiamen shi Nan Putuo si, Xiamen, China)
    (http://www.fodian.net/zxcd/default.htm).
    Language: Chinese (GB).
    Description: This dictionary is an interesting, yet slow resource which performes a combined search within currently (Dec 2005) 18 sources: 佛学大辞典;佛学常见辞汇;三藏法数([明]一如编);中国佛教(中国佛教协会编);翻译名义集([宋]法云编);佛学次第统编([明]杨卓编);汉英-英汉-英英佛教词汇;巴-英南传佛教辞典;法相辞典;中国大百科全书(摘录);法界次第初门;法门名义集;俗语佛源;五灯会元;佛教器物简述;祖庭事苑;阅藏知津;佛教人物传. By default, only entry-headings are searched and the string has to start with the search term. However, that can be changed in the settings (设置) section, where also each source can be in/excluded. There is even a Sanskrit font available for download. Users should note, that fulltext search (全文检索) excludes the entry-headings, and changes in the settings first need to be "saved" (确定).
    Content: (1) Search; (2) Search history; 3) Settings; (4) Dictionaries overview; (5) Join us.
    Added on 12 Dec 2005 (MA)

  25. Essential!
    A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms (William Edward Soothill and Lewis Hodous [ed. of orig. print version]; Charles Muller [ed. digitized version])
    (http://www.human.toyogakuen-u.ac.jp/~acmuller/soothill/soothill-hodous.html).
    Language: English, Chinese (UTF-8).
    Self description: "[... Although] an extremely dated work, having reached completion during the mid 1930's, [... and thus] the understanding of the philosophical terminology coming out of such systems as Mâdhyamika and Yogâcâra [... tending] to be simplistic, if not completely erroneous [...,] about every serious scholar of East Asian Buddhism has a copy of the Soothill/Hodous dictionary in her/his personal library (perhaps stashed somewhere next to a copy of Mathew's). This is an indication of an important fact about the dictionary: there is a large amount of information contained within it that can't readily be found elsewhere. Most notably information on Indian and Central Asian place names, personal names, temple names and so forth, but also lots of information on hybrid Sanskrit and transliterations that one will not find in any other dictionary, East Asian or otherwise."
    Site contents: (1) Preface to the Digital Edition (Why Digitize Soothill?; Status of the Digital Document and Treatment of its Contents; Acknowledgments); (2) Professor Soothill's Preface; (3) Professor Hodous' Preface; (4) A Dictionary of Chinese-Buddhist Terms; (5) Download (HTML file and XML Source).
    Note: Large file (3,5 MB)!
    Resource suggested by Matthias Arnold, Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Added 01 Jul 2003 (HL)

  26. Essential!
    CJK-English Dictionary (Charles Muller, Toyo Gakuen University, Japan)
    (http://www.acmuller.net/dealt/index.html).
    Language: English and UTF-8-encoded CJK characters.
    Self description: "This dictionary-database represents the ongoing results of over 15 years of research in East Asian pre-modern texts, from Zhou dynasty materials to nineteenth-century writings in China, Korea and Japan. Besides its inherent digital attributes, this dictionary already surpasses many of its hard-copy counterpart dictionaries in a number of ways. The number of single characters contained in the database is 20,902--the entire CJK portion of Unicode 2.0. As of 2/17/01, about half of these contained complete information, along with 6,000 compound words. The definitions contained in this dictionary are, for the most part, far more extensive than any other current CJK-English dictionary, being derived from a wide range of authoritative Chinese, Korean and Japanese lexicons as well as through the direct reading of primary textual sources."
    Added 16 Jan 1999, last revised 17 Nov 2001 (HL)

  27. Essential!
    The Tower of Babel (Sergei Starostin, Russian State University of the Humanities, Russia)
    (http://starling.rinet.ru/main.html).
    Language: Russian and English.
    Description: An international etymological database project, where you have amongst others access to the following databases: Sino-Tibetan Etymology (published in 1996 as "A Comparative Vocabulary of Five Sino-Tibetan Languages" by S. Starostin and I. Pejros); Chinese Database (by S. Starostin, contains data of about 4000 Chinese characters and will be updated gradually); and others (Altaic etc.); Chinese Dialects (by William Wang and Chin-Chuan Cheng, originally developed at Berkeley and the City University of Hong Kong since the late sixties on the basis of the Hanyu Fangyin Zihui).
    Note: It is not possible to search for Chinese characters. You have to enter pronounciations (for the Sino-Tibetan Etymology database you have to know the Ancient Chinese pronounciation which you can find in the Chinese Database entering modern Pinyin).
    Added 08 Aug 1998 (HL), last revised 23 Feb 2009 (HL)

  28. Essential!
    Chinese Character Genealogy (Zhongwen Zipu 中 文 字 普) (Rick Harbaugh, USA)
    (http://zhongwen.com/).
    Language: English. Chinese entries are in GIF format, i.e. no Chinese software needed!
    Description: A very useful etymological Chinese-English dictionary that shows the creation of over 4000 characters from about 200 simple ideographs and pictographs by way of "genealogical charts". Features include several search methods (Pinyin, Zhuyin, radical, stroke count, ...), words of two or more characters, and English translations. The site also includes some online readings (also in GIF) such as the Daode jing 道 1/4w 經, Lunyu 1/2?語 and others.
    Note: Frames-capable browser needed!

  29. Essential!
    異體字字典 = Dictionary of Chinese Character Variants (Mandarin Promotion Council, Ministry of Education, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Chinese, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan)
    (http://140.111.1.40/).
    Language: Chinese (Big5).
    Description: The dictionary offers searchable lists of variants, arranged by their standard forms. To get to a character one looks it up using the radical or stoke-count lists. In the left part of the screen each standard form has a main entry with explanations. To the right the available variants are displayed (images). Clicking on one of them displays the variant's entry as it appears in different references. Many of these references have been scanned and will be displayed in the right-hand side of the screen. To get access to materials not publicly available one has to fill in an application form. To view all special characters in the explanations one has to install additional fonts. These are available in the FAQ section of the page.
    Contents: (1) System; (2) Editions; (3) Search for character forms; (4) Additional indexes; (5) Terms used.
    Note: Installation of additional fonts necessary.
    Added 10 Apr 2006 (MA)

  30. Very useful
    On-line Chinese Tools
    (http://www.mandarintools.com/).
    By Eric E. Peterson. A very useful tool for Chinese learners, this site contains: Character Dictionary (look up by English, pinyin, radical/stroke, and Cantonese); Chinese Character Flashcards; Add Pinyin to Web Documents (a CGI program that will someday have a Java front end); Big5 <-> GB Converter (a Java applet where you can input text of one encoding into one window and have the converted text appear in a different window); Convert Web Documents between GB and Big5 (type in the web address of a page in Big5 and have it come up in GB, and vice versa); Romanization Converter (Pinyin, Wade Giles, etc.); Western-Chinese Calendar Converter (under development).
    Added/revised on 19 Feb 2000 (HL)

  31. Very useful
    Cantonese Pronunciation Dictionary 粵 音 韻 彙 (S. L. Wong / The Chinese University of Hong Kong)
    (http://www.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/Canton/).
    Language: Chinese (Big5).
    Description: This database is based on the Cantonese Pronunciation Dictionary 粵 音 韻 彙 by S. L. Wong 黃 錫 凌 and was put online by the Research Institute for the Humanities, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Enter a Chinese character and be informed how to pronounce it (or the other way round). The results include audio files.
    Added/revised on 28 Apr 1998 (HL)

  32. Very useful
    CHINLEX - Deutsch-Chinesisches Fachwörterbuch Wirtschaft 1/4w 漢 經 濟 術 語 詞 典 (Trier University, Germany, and Siemens Nixdorf)
    (http://www.chinlex.de/).
    Language: German/Chinese (GB, Big5, GIF).
    Description: A German-Chinese Chinese-German online dictionary of economy. One of the many useful features is the possibility to have the Chinese phrases played as audio file.
    Information supplied by Christian Weinberger, Vienna, Austria.
    Last revised 01 Feb 2003 (JH).

  33. Very useful
    Lexicon of Confuzianism (Lao Sze-kwang, Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong)
    (http://hermes.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/ConfLex/).
    Language: Chinese (Big5). Main page in English.
    Description: A dictionary including explanations on philosophical concepts, short biographies of philosophers, and descriptions of the most important classics and - probably the core of this site - of a rich collection of commentaries.
    Note: Capital letters are relevant when using the search function!

  34. Very useful
    English Chinese Glossary of Computer and Network Communicatinos Terms = 英漢計算機及網絡通訊技術詞彙 (Sun Zehua 孫澤華)
    (http://ihome.ust.hk/~lbsun/terms.html).
    Language: Chinese (Big5).
    Description: A very useful English-Chinese list of computer and networking terminology. Although far from complete it is much more useful than the outdated "Intelligent Database for Standard Chinese Computer Terminology" (http://ccts.cs.cuhk.edu.hk/) by the Hong Kong Computer Society and was originally set up to incoporate especially those words not included there.
    Site contents: Alphabetically ordered word-list on one single page, English-Chinese, also including variants for Hong Kong and Taiwan.
    Added 6 Jan 2004 (MA)


This page is maintained at the

Sinological Institute, Leiden University, Netherlands,

with support from the Institute of Chinese Studies (Heidelberg University), the Berlin State Library, and the German Research Foundation


© Hanno E. Lecher 1995-2009

URL of this page: http://www.sino.uni-heidelberg.de/igcs/iglang.htm
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