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Chinese History

edited by Hanno E. Lecher
Last updated on 25 May 2009, 89 main entries


History:   Top | East Asia | China | Hong Kong | Mongolia | Tibet | Taiwan | Singapore | Archaeology | Biographies
Related:   Journals | Bibliography

Essential!
WWW-VL History: China (Lynn Nelson, WWW-VL History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA)
(http://www.ku.edu/kansas/cn/).
Language: English.
Description: The WWW-VL History is the oldest part of the WWW Virtual Library project, started in 1993 by Tim Berners-Lee, creator of the WWW. The subsection on Chinese History presents a well selected and well structured range of Western (mainly English) language resources. The WWW-VL History: China is a sister site of and complementary to the IGCS - History.
Site contents: (A) Research Tools: (1) Maps (Cities; Historical Maps; Gazetteers); (2) Language; (3) Bibliography; (4) Materials (Texts; Images; Sound; Journals; Publishers; Booksellers; Research Centers; Libraries; Museums; Biography; Associations); (5) Instruction; (B) Timelines; (C) History.
Added 20 Sep 2002 (HL), last revised 6 Jun 2003 (HL)

History: East Asia

Essential!
Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS) (Institute of Chinese Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany)
(http://www.sino.uni-heidelberg.de/dachs/).
Language: English.
Supplied note: "[... A] project aiming at capturing and archiving Internet resources reflecting public discourse in or about China that otherwise would be lost for future research. In contrast to the Internet Archive (http://www.archive.org/), DACHS should be able to more flexibly respond to events and issues relevant to the Chinese society. Download activities started in August 2001; so far [Jul 2003 - HL] we have collected about 630,000 files roughly corresponding to 9 GB in data. The collection includes Web sites, e-journals, films, snapshots of discussion boards, as well as hundreds of single documents. Topics covered are the 16th Party Congress of the CCP, China's and Taiwan's accession to the WTO, the September 11 terror attack, Falun gong, SARS, and many others. The digital archive is part of ChinaResource.org, a project of the Institute of Chinese Studies, University of Heidelberg, financed by the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach-Foundation."
Site contents: (1) About DACHS (Introduction; Collection Policy; Legal Issues; Working Routines; Technical Infrastructure; Current Status); (2) Access (Metadata Search; Fulltext Search [under development - HL]; Table of Contents; Special Collections); (3) Publications; (4) Links; (5) Contact; (6) Management.
Added 24 Jul 2003 (HL)

Essential!
史學連線 (History On-line) (Liu Zenggui 劉增貴, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)
(http://saturn.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/~liutk/shih/).
Language: Chinese (Big5).
Resource type: On-line guide.
Description: Contrary to the dates shown on the pages this site is still updated regularly. It contains a wealth of important starting points to on-line resources on Chinese and Taiwanese history. Not to be missed!
Site contents: (1) 史學機構 History Research Institutes; (2) 史網總表 Search Engines, Indices, and Mailinglists; (3) 中國史 Chinese History; (4) 世界史 World History; (5) 台灣史 Taiwan History; (6) 專史 Topical History (General; Thought; Culture; Ethnics; Art; Music; Science; Astronomy; Architecture; Mathematics; Military Science; Women; Medicine; Religion; Economics); (7) 博物館 Museums; (8) 圖書查詢 Libraries; (9) 電子文庫 Electronic Texts; (10) 全文檢索 Full-text databases; (11) 期刊雜誌 Periodicals; (12) 地理系統 Geographic Aids; (13) 搜索引擎 Search; (14) 史學論壇 Discussion Groups; (15) 史網偶拾 Miscellaneous.
Note: Frames capable browser needed!
Added/revised on 16 Nov 1999 (HL)

Very useful
Internet East Asian History Sourcebook (Paul Halsall, Fordham University, New York, NY, USA)
(http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/eastasia/eastasiasbook.html).
Language: English.
Description: Collected by Paul Halsall, a historian at Fordham University, New York City, USA, this page offers access to a large selection of texts and images related to East Asian (esp. Chinese) history. Site contents: (1) Cultural Origins; (2) Religious Traditions; (3) Imperial China; (4) Traditional Japan; (5) Korea; (6) The Western Intrusion; (7) Japan as a World Power; (8) China's Disaster: 1840-1949; (9) China Since World War II; (10) Japan Since World War II; (11) Korea Since World War II; (12) Other East Asian Countries; (13) East Asian Genders and Sexualities; (14) Further Resources on East Asian History.
Note: Unfortunately, many links on this page are dead.
Added/revised on 14.02.1999 (HL)

Essential!
Asia Crisis Homepage (Nouriel Roubini, Stern School of Business, New York University, USA)
(http://www.stern.nyu.edu/~nroubini/asia/AsiaHomepage.html).
Language: English.
Description: Supplied note: "Dr. Nouriel Roubini, Associate Professor of Economics and International Business at the Stern School of Business of the New York University, maintains an extensive homepage on the Asian economic crisis, as a part of his MBA Macroeconomics Course Page. It is one of the most extensive and comprehensive collection of data, analyses and hyperlinks on the subject." (Cited from the Asian Studies WWW Monitor, 26 Jan 1998).
Site contents: (1) Basic Readings and References on the Causes of the Crisis; (2) Global Effects, Regional and Systemic Contagion Analyses; (3) Country Analyses (Thailand, Hong Kong, South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan, China, Japan); (4) The Debate on the Role of the IMF in the Crisis; (5) Will the Crisis Spread to Other Regions of the World?; (6) The Role of Financial Fragility and Systemic Risk; (7) Other Episodes of Fixed Exchange Rate Collapse in the 1990s; (8) The Debate on Fixed versus Flexible Exchange Rate; (9) Sources of Official Data and Reports; (10) News Sources."
Added/revised on 31.01.1998 (HL)


History:   Top | East Asia | China | Hong Kong | Mongolia | Tibet | Taiwan | Singapore | Archaeology | Biographies
Related:   Journals | Bibliography

History: China

Essential!
WWW-VL History: China (Lynn Nelson, WWW-VL History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA)
(http://www.ukans.edu/history/VL/east_asia/china.html).
Language: English.
Description: The WWW-VL History is the oldest part of the WWW Virtual Library project, started in 1993 by Tim Berners-Lee, creator of the WWW. The subsection on Chinese History presents a well selected and well structured range of Western (mainly English) language resources. The WWW-VL History: China is a sister site of and complementary to the IGCS - History.
Site contents: (A) Research Tools: (1) Maps (Cities; Historical Maps; Gazetteers); (2) Language; (3) Bibliography; (4) Materials (Texts; Images; Sound; Journals; Publishers; Booksellers; Research Centers; Libraries; Museums; Biography; Associations); (5) Instruction; (B) Timelines; (C) History
Added 20 Sep 2002 (HL)

See also the East Asia section above!

History - China:   Up | General | Premodern China | Modern China | Republic | PR China

General

Very useful
Zhongxili zhuanhuan gongju 中西曆轉換工具 (Chinese Western calendar conversion tool) (Chiou Jan-yi 邱展毅, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)
(http://www.sinica.edu.tw/%7Etdbproj/sinocal/luso.html).
Language: Chinese (Big5).
Description: This page provides a very useful conversion tool for calendar data between 1 c.e. (beginning with the first year of the Pingdi era of the Western Han) and the year 2000 (actually continuing until December 31, 2099, i.e. Minguo 188 (歲次己未)11月20日). Conversion in both directions is possible. After entering the data one has to click on the "zhixing 執行" (execute) button. An introduction and explanation is available under the "xiangguan xunxi 相關訊息" (related news) link.
Note: JavaScript must be enabled.
Added 28 Jun 2004 (MA)

Very useful
China Historical GIS (Geographic Information System) (CHGIS) (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA)
(http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~chgis/).
Language: English, Chinese (GB, Big5).
Supplied note: "The CHGIS project has been established under the aegis of the Harvard-Yenching Institute and Harvard University with a three-year grant from the Henry Luce Foundation. The CHGIS will establish a standardized coding system to identify historical administrative units and settlements for different periods in Chinese History. It will provide a base GIS platform for spatial analysis, temporal statistical modeling, and representation of selected historical units as digital maps. The project [which builds on the work of the late Robert M. Hartwell - T.M. Ciolek] intends to make the multi-lingual base GIS available to the scholarly community at no charge through download sites throughout the world.
The participating institutions are: Center for Historical Geography, Fudan University (Shanghai) Computing Sciences Center, Academia Sinica (Taipei) Australian Centre for Asian Spatial Data and Information Analysis Network, Griffith University (Brisbane), Harvard University (Cambridge)."

Description: T.M. Ciolek: "Site est. 20 Dec 2000. Close involvement of Peter K. Bol, Lawrence Crissman, C.C. Hsieh, and Merrick Lex Berman augurs well for the success of the Project. Definitely a site to be watched."
Site contents: (1) Introduction; (2) Web maps (CHGIS 1820, Qing Dynasty; CHGIS 1990, Chinese Counties; Hartwell Historical GIS; China Weather Maps - Falling Rain Genomics); (3) Data sets (China Historical GIS; DCW China GIS shapefiles; Hartwell China History Project GIS; G. William Skinner, Qing Macroregional GIS; China in Time and Space - CITAS; Other Datasets: population, geocoding, placenames); (4) Members; (5) Meetings; (6) Tools; (7) Search.
Resource suggested via the Asian Studies WWW Monitor (21 Dec 2000) by Merrick Berman (lex@rpcp.mit.edu).
Added 29 Dec 2000, last revised 16 Aug 2002 (HL)

Useful
Historical Society for 20th Century China
(Univ.of Idaho, USA)
(http://www.lcsc.edu/hstcc/default.htm).
Language: English.
Description: "The Historical Society for 20th Century China (HSTCC) is an organization (est. 1983) dedicated to scholarly interchange about modern China. Site contents: (1) A Homepage that introduces the Society and the Web site; (2) Listing of the Executive Board, recent newsletters and bylaws; (3) The HSTCC Directory (with linked email addresses); (4) A Research Directory (with homepages that include highlighted and when possible web-linked publications); (5) Resources for Modern China; (6) Membership Information and Online Membership Registration; (7) HSTCC 1997 Symposium Information; (8) HSTCC Scrapbook."
Last revised 27 Sep 2000 (HL)

Essential!
Classical Bibliography for Chinese History (Benjamin Elman, East Asian Studies Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA)
(http://www.princeton.edu/~classbib/).
Language: English, with parts in Chinese (Big5).
Self description: "This bibliography pulls together materials that Benjamin Elman has been compiling for the past ten years with the help of graduate students. Its intended audience is anyone interested in doing research in Chinese history (broadly defined) but with a focus on the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing dynasty (1644-1911)."
Description: Since this site has been developed for a long period of time by one of the leading experts in Chinese history, its richness of resources and quality of content are almost unmatched on the Internet. After moving to its new address in January 2003 the romanization has been switched to Pinyin and a global search engine has been added to its functionality.
Site contents: (1) Introduction to Classical Chinese Historiography; (2) Relevant Electronic Resources for Chinese Studies; (3) Dictionaries; (4) Selected List Of Bibliographical & Geographical Aids; (5) Biographical Aids; (6) Some Aids For Translating Chinese Official Titles & Institutions; (7) Reference Guide to Classical Book Titles; (8) The Four Parts; (9) Bibliography of Chinese Classics & Literature In Translation With Recent Related Histories; (10) Selected English Bibliography For Chinese Civilization: A Brief Topical and Historical Survey to Ming Times; (11) Sources For The Ming Dynasty; (12) Sources For The Qing Dynasty; (13) Civil and Military Examination Bibliographies.
Added 1996, last revised 18 Jan 2003 (HL)

Very useful
Chinese History Research Site (University of California (San Diego), CA, USA)
(http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/chinesehistory/index.html).
Language: English.
Description: Site contents: (1) Sources (a guide to English and Chinese materials relating to historical research on modern China); (2) Archives (provides information on Chinese local archives and also serves as a site for researchers to exchange information); (3) Bibliography (contains a list of English-language works on Qing, Republican, and PRC history); (4) Links (contains a list of China-related web sites and provides quick access to the on-line catalogues of East Asian libraries throughout the world); (5) Current Research (provides registered users with up-to-date information on who is doing what research).
Added/revised on 12 May 1999 (HL)

Very useful
中國歷史博物館 (The National Museum of Chinese History) (The National Museum of Chinese History, Beijing, China)
(http://www.nmch.gov.cn/).
Language: Chinese (GB); Chinese (Big5); English.
Description: An interesting site with all the necessary information on the museum itself, including the history of the museum. Also included is the major exhibition of the Museum (Exhibition of Chinese History) with fotos covering exhibits of the time since the Palaeolithic age.
Site contents: (1) Introduction; (2) Exhibition; (3) Collection; (4) Academic; (5) Service; (6) News; (7) Site Map; (8) Search.
Resource suggested by Rolf Melheim, Oslo, Norway.
Added 29 Oct 2000 (HL)

China Bibliography - Collections of Resources
(http://hua.umf.maine.edu/China/bibtxt2.html).
Contains the following headings: Bibliography of Chinese History and Culture (most references from 1983 onwards); Chinese/English & English/Chinese Dictionaries; Chinese Dictionaries of Various Languages; Chinese Specialized Dictionaries (science, idioms, library, medicine, social science, agriculture etc.); Publisher Addresses (addresses of selected, mainly US publishers). Forthcoming: materials on social-, political science & calligraphy.

History of China
(http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/).
Language: English (Chinese names are also provided as Gif characters).
Description: Provided by Leon Poon, a graduate student at the Department of Physics, University of Maryland, this is a very detailed history of China, including several maps, illustrations, and a search facility. The core of this site is based on the history portion of the Army Area Handbook on China, originally written by Rinn-Sup Shinn and Robert L. Worden. Table of contents (not including the subchapters): Historical Setting; The Ancient Dynasties; The Imperial Era; Emergence Of Modern China; Republican China; People's Republic Of China; References for History of China.
Added/revised on 08.08.1998 (HL)

China in Brief (中國互聯網新聞中心 China Internet Information Center, PR China)
(http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/37208.htm).
Language: English.
Description: This site offers the official view on the following topics: (1) History; (2) Land and Resources; (3) Administrative Divisions and Cities; (4) Population and Ethnic Groups; (5) Political System and State Structure; (6) Political Parties and Mass Organizations; (7) China and the World; (8) National Economic Development; (9) Agriculture; (10) Industry; (11) Transportation and Tourism; (12) Astronautics Industry and New and High Technology Industry; (13) Finance and Insurance; (14) Opening to the Outside World; (15) People's Lvelihood; (16) Environmental Protection; (17) Education; (18) Science and Technology; (19) Culture; (20) Physical Culture and Sports; (21) Appendixes.
Last revised 8 Jan 2003 (JH).

Texts and Bibliographies Online
(http://www.uni-kiel.de:8080/ORIENTALISTIK/easl/text.html).
This page is part of the homepage of EASL (European Association of Sinological Librarians) and offers a list of Chinese texts (philosophy, literature, history etc.) which you can download or view from the various existing databases on the internet. Probably this site could develop into a valuable internet biobliography of Chinese texts in the future.

中華文化網 (Chinese Culture Net) (Wu Hengsheng 吳恆昇)
(http://web.hanyang.ac.kr/~pendar/chinese/wbichinese/resource/archive/ch_text1/).
Language: Chinese (Big5).
Description: Wu Hengsheng, student of International Business at the National Taiwan University, has put on-line an impressive amount of basic works of Chinese philosophy, literature, and history. Be careful, though, with the reliablity of these texts, since private endeavors like this usually lack the necessary amount of proofreading by different experienced scholars!
Resource suggested by Clemens Ziesché, Bonn, Germany.
Added 29 Apr 1999 (HL), last revised 8 Jan 2003 (JH).

Interesting
SageSource - Digital Publications (Gary Arbuckle, British Columbia, Canada)
(http://www.sagesource.com/digi.html).
Language: English.
Description: Contains publications on East Asia (some English translations of primary sources or parts thereof as well as some secondary materials on Chinese history, philosophy, and society) as free HTML texts as well as some free graphics and photos.
Resource suggested by Barend ter Haar, Heidelberg University, Germany.
Added/revised on 10 Feb 2000 (HL)

MCLC Resource Center - Image Archive (Kirk A. Denton, Dept. of East Asian Languages and Literatures, Ohio State Univ., USA)
(http://mclc.osu.edu/rc/imagearchive/IMAGE.htm).
Language: English.
Site contents: (1) Late Qing (1894-1911); (2) Republican China (1911-1949); (3) Maoist China (1949-1979); (4) Post-Mao China (1979-present); (5) Taiwan; (6) Hong Kong. Each section is further devided into Literature, Film/Media, Culture, History, and Art.
Added 21 Jan 1999 (HL), last revised 18 Apr 2004 (HL).

History - China:   Up | General | Premodern China | Modern China | Republic | PR China

Premodern China: up to Qing (before 1644)

Very useful
China History (To Qing Dynasty) (Ken Klein, East Asian Library, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA)
(http://www.usc.edu/isd/locations/ssh/eastasian/toqing.htm).
Language: English.
Description: Built on the work of Bob Felsing and his CEAL Directory on Chinese History, this page is an important starting point for on-line resources on Chinese history up to 1644.
Site contents: (1) Prehistory; (2) Xia Dynasty; (3) Shang Dynasty; (4) Zhou Dynasty; (5) Qin Dynasty; (6) Han Dynasty; (7) Three Kingdoms; (8) Jin Dynasty; (9) Southern/Northern Dynasties; (10) Sui Dynasty; (11) Tang Dynasty; (12) Five Dynasties; (13) Liao Dynasty; (14) Song Dynasty; (15) Yuan Dynasty; (16) Ming Dynasty.
Resource suggested by Ken Klein, East Asian Library, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Added 17 Dec 2000 (HL)

Essential!
漢籍電子文獻 (Scripta Sinica) (Academia Sinica Computer Center (ASCC), Taiwan)
(http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3).
Language: Chinese (Big5).
Resource type: Fulltext database.
Description: One of the major fulltext database projects currently under way. The texts are carefully proofread and relatively reliable. Currently (Oct 1999) the database contains some 140 mio characters, growth rate is 10 mio characters per annum. Although the search program is extremely mighty, most of its capabilities remain unexploited in the WWW version (see note below).
Site contents: (1) 二十五史 (25 Histories); (2) 十三經注疏 (13 Classics with Commentaries); (3) 上古漢語語料庫 - 摘要 (Ancient Chinese Texts - excerpts) (includes Lunyu 論語, Mengzi 孟子, Mozi 墨子, Zhuangzi 莊子, Xunzi 荀子, Hanfeizi 韓非子, Lücshi chunqiu 呂氏春秋, Laozi 老子, Shangjunshu 商君書, Guanzi 管子, Yanzi chunqiu 晏子春秋, Sunzi 孫子); (4) 臺灣方志 (Local Histories of Taiwan); (5) 臺灣檔案 (Taiwan Historical Archive); (6) 臺灣文獻 (Documents from Taiwan); (7) 文心雕龍 Wenxin diaolong; (8) 佛經三論 (Three Treatises of Buddhist Canon); (9) 姚際恒著作集 (Collected Works of Yao Jiheng); (10) 新清史 - 本紀; (11) 樂府詩集.
Access to the following parts of the database is restricted: (1) 諸子 (Pre-Han Philosophers); (2) 古籍十八種 (18 Ancient Texts); (3) 古籍三十四種 (34 Ancient Texts); (4) 大正新脩大藏經 (Taisho Tripitaka); (5) 清代經世文編; (6) 中華民國史事日誌 (Diary of the Republic of China, 1912-1949).
Note: For sophisticated research purposes the telnet version remains the best solution. European scholars may use the telnet access to the 25 Histories at Heidelberg University. A detailed description of all its possiblities will be available there soon (Nov. 1999).
Added/revised on 23 Oct 1999 (HL)

  • Essential!
    Hanquan Database of Ancient Texts 故宮【寒泉】古典文獻全文檢索資料庫 (Chen Yufu 陳郁夫, Palace Museum Taipei, Taiwan)
    (http://203.68.135.131/d1cgi/index.htm).
    Language: Chinese (Big5).
    Resource type: Searchable fulltext database.
    Description: This widely known database is now freely available on-line! The search interface is simple but efficient, at least Boolean searches (and/or) are possible, and within each textcorpus you can search single parts or the whole text. The results include the context of the search word/phrase, and references to the printed edition (volume, page, etc.).
    Site contents: (1) Shisan jing 十三經 (based on Ruan Yuan's 阮元 edition, but without commentaries); (2) Xian-Qin zhuzi 先秦諸子 (Pre-Qin Philosophers; containing Xunzi 荀子, Laozi 老子, Zhuangzi 莊子, Liezi 列子, Mozi 墨子, Yanzi Chunqiu 晏子春秋, Guanzi 管子, Shangjunshu 商君書, Shenzi 慎子, Hanfeizi 韓非子, Sunzi 孫子, Wuzi 吳子, Yinwenzi 尹文子, Lüshi chunqiu 呂氏春秋); (3) Quan Tang shi 全唐詩 (Complete Tang Poems; based on the Zhonghua shuju 中華書局 edition in 25 vols); (4) Song Yuan xu'an 宋元學案; (5) Mingru xue'an 明儒學案; (6) Siku quanshu zongmu 四庫全書總目; (7) Zhuzi yulei 朱子語類; (8) Hong lou meng 紅樓夢 (Dream of the Red Chamber); (9) Baisha quanji 白沙全集 (Complete works of Chen Xianzhang 陳憲章, 15th c.); (10) Zizhi tongjian 資治通鑑; (11) Xu Zizhi tongjian 續資治通鑑; (12) Ershiwu shi 二十五史 (25 Histories; each to be searched eperately). More texts will be added in the future.
    Note: No access restriction! (But frames capable browser needed).
    Added 22 Oct 1999 (HL), last revised 28 Oct 2008 (HL).

    Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution in China (Center for the Study of Chinese Prehistory, USA)
    (http://www.cruzio.com/~cscp/index.htm).
    A catalog of human fossil remains from China; a picture gallery of important fossil specimens; maps detailing the distribution of human fossils in China; and links to other relevant sites dealing with paleontology, human evolution and Chinese prehistory.

    明清研究會 (Ming-Ch'ing Studies) (Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)
    (http://www.sinica.edu.tw/~mingching/).
    Language: Chinese (Big5), some parts also in English.
    Description: "Academia Sinica, in collaboration with scholars from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds who research the Ming-Ch'ing periods, has established a Ming-Ch'ing website. This inter-disciplinary website will provide information on upcoming events and meetings related to our Ming-Ch'ing study group as well as any activities that may take place. The site also provides summaries of scholars' works, publications, and their most recent research plans. We will provide the contents of periodicals and journals related to Ming-Ch'ing studies for the last five years for scholars to peruse. We are also at the moment setting up an email discussion group using the email address below." (Cited from Michael J. Walsh's contribution to the H-Asia Discussionlist, Jan. 13, 1999).
    Added/revised on 16.01.1999 (HL)

    Silkroad Foundation (USA)
    (http://www.silk-road.com/).
    Language: English.
    Description: "The Silkroad Foundation was established in 1996 to promote the study and preservation of cultures and arts on the Silkroad. Our main goal, at present, is to establish and maintain vital links to the Silkroad communities here and abroad in order to keep informed regarding the latest research and discoveries on the Silkroad." (Cited from the Asian Studies WWW Monitor Feb. 1997) Contents: Foundation Info; Silk Road Chronology; Dunhuangology; Travel; Lectures; Articles; Bibliography; Music; CD-ROM; Other Links; Search; News/Events.
    Information supplied by Adela Lee.
    Note: Site uses frames!

    Essential!
    Silk Road Seattle (Walter Chapin Simpson Center for the Humanities, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA)
    (http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/).
    Language: Enlgish.
    Self description: "Silk Road Seattle is an ongoing public education project using the "Silk Road" theme to explore cultural interaction across Eurasia from the beginning of the Common Era (A. D.) to the Seventeenth Century. Our principal goal is to provide via the Internet materials for learning and teaching about the Silk Road. Much is available here already: historical texts, well illustrated web pages on historic cities and architecture and on traditional culture of the Central Asian nomads, extensive annotated bibliographies of resources, an electronic atlas, and a stunning virtual art exhibit drawing on museum collections from around the world. [...]"
    Description: An extensively annotated resource collection on cultures and history of the Silk Road.
    Site contents: (1) Virtual Art Exhibit (Cultures; Trade; Religions; Intercultural Change); (2) Museum Collections (Annotated catalog of links to museum web sites; Featured Museums); (3) Cities and Architecture (Historical and cultural information and, where available, a generous photographic record regarding some of the important Silk Road urban centers and their buildings); (4) Traditional Culture [in Central Asia] (Dwellings; Food; Religion; Animals; Wedding [with video clips]; Oral Epic: The Kojojash); (5) Maps; (6) Historical Texts (full-text, transl. into English); (7) Teaching/Learning Guides (Surveys; Chronologies; Reference; Maps; Specific Topics; Curriculum Materials; Videos and CD-ROMs; Web Links not included in the above; Introduction); (8) Events Archive; (9) Buddhist MSS Project (British Library/University of Washington Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project); (10) Seattle-based Resources; (11) The Simpson Center; (12) The Silkroad Foundation; (13) Contact Information; (14) Copyright
    Resource suggested via Asian Studies WWW Monitor (29 Sep 2004) by Daniel C. Waugh, Walter Chapin Simpson Center for the Humanities, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Added 30 Oct 2004 (HL)

    Society for Ming Studies (明史學會) (Center for Early Modern History, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA)
    (http://www.hist.umn.edu/ming/society.htm).
    Language: English.
    Description: Founded in 1995, the purpose of the Society for Ming Studies is to promote the study of Ming China and to promote publications and scholarly communication relating to Ming history. The society runs also a mailinglist at majordomo@colby.edu (subscribe minglist).
    Added/revised on 16.01.1999 (HL)

    Essential!
    Warring States Project (E. Bruce Brooks/A. Taeko Brooks, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA)
    (http://www.umass.edu/wsp/).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "The Warring States Project is a center and international contact point for research on China's classical period (the 05th through 03rd centuries) and the beginning of the Imperial period following. Its approach is based on the researches of Bruce and Taeko Brooks into the dates of the texts on which our knowledge of that period largely rests. Their work solves some long-standing philological problems in a chronologically consistent way. The redated text sources, in turn, yield a historically plausible account of China's formative centuries. They reveal, for the first time, the "Hundred Schools" dialogue actually in the process of taking place, and generally clarify the development of ideas and events leading up to the Chinese Empire. The ultimate effect of this work is to require a reconsideration of previous ideas about the classical period, and thus to clarify its value for comparative history, and its true relevance to contemporary situations."
    Site contents: (1) News; (2) The Project; (3) Methodology (History Basics; Acquiring Statistics; Beginning Philology; Mrs McMillan's Class; Antiquity Frenzy; Anyway Club; Advice to Students); (4) Comparative history; (5) Indica (The Great Transition; Kautilya's Maxims); (6) Tools (Text Typology; Chu Language; Warring States Texts); (7) Digital Indexes; (8) Connections (Internet Links; Romanization Tables; Sino-Platonic Papers; WS Bookshop; Used Book Corner); (9) E-Mail (List Protocol; Making Contact); (10) Conferences (Travel Advice; Lecture Index); (11) Journal; (12) Publications (Book Series; The Original Analects; Supplement to TOA); (13) Class Support; (14) Implications (Asian Values; Political Rights); (15) On-line Publications (Acquiring Statistics; Beginning Philology; The Great Transition; Kautilya's Maxims; Mrs McMillan's Class; Supplement to TOA; Warring States Texts).
    Resource suggested by E. Bruce Brooks, Warring States Project, University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Added 28 Jun 2000 (HL), last revised 26 Dec 2003 (HL).

    Useful
    La China en España : Elaboración de un corpus digitalizado de documentos españoles sobre China de 1555 a 1900 (China in Spain : a digitized corpus of Spanish documents on China from 1555 to 1900) (Escola d'Estudis de l'Àsia Oriental, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain)
    (http://www.upf.es/fhuma/eeao/projectes/che/principal.htm).
    Language: Spanish.
    Cited description: "This project tries to locate, transcribe, digitize and publish Spanish resources on China from the 16th to the 19th century. [...] During the first phase of the project, which is supported by a grant from the Ministry of Education and Culture and will take three years, the following resources will be investigated:
    a) Documents of the 16th and 17th centuries, with special emphasis on missionary's reports from their travels to China, and on documents related to the rites controversy.
    b) Documents referring to the relations between China and the Philippines in the 16th and 17th centuries, with special emphasis on the relations of the governors of the Philippines with China and the treatment of Chinese emigrants in the Philippines.
    c) Spanish documents of the 19th century referring to the foreign penetration of China and the resulting social convulsions. [...]"
    [Spanish text tr. by HL]
    Description: Currently [June 2006] the site contains some 120 documents manually transcribed from their originals, including some bibliographical meta data. Unfortunately no search function is included.
    Contents: (1) Introduction; (2) Chronological index; (3) Author's index; (4) Index of archives; (5) Useful links.
    Resource suggested by Nicolas Standaert, Leuven University, Belgium.
    Added 8 Jul 2006 (HL)

    History - China:   Up | General | Premodern China | Modern China | Republic | PR China

    Modern China: Qing Dynasty onward (1644 to now)

    Fairbank Chinese History Virtual Library
    (http://www.cnd.org/fairbank/).
    Material on the history of the Qing dynasty, the Republic, and the PR China.

    Essential!
    Recording the grandeur of the Qing : the southern inspection tour scrolls of the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, USA ; Columbia University, New York, NY, USA)
    (http://www.learn.columbia.edu/nanxuntu/).
    Language: English.
    Supplied note: "[...] explores the art, government, and commerce of the Qing dynasty (1644-1912) through the presentation of four monumental artworks of the period. These four works are part of two larger sets of scrolls detailing the inspection tours of the realm undertaken by the two greatest Qing monarchs - Kangxi (r. 1662-1722) in 1689, and his grandson Qianlong (r. 1736-96) in 1751, in emulation of his grandfather. [...] Close-up views, interactive scenes, and descriptive essays together give viewers an intimate look at: (1) the commercial life of a busy Chinese city, where viewers encounter landmarks familiar to tourists today; (2) the two emperors themselves, including their extensive entourage, the imperial pomp and pageantry surrounding their travels, and the reception they received from their subjects as they toured Southern China, and their duties as emperors and their responsibilities in maintaining the Mandate of Heaven; (3) the conventions of Chinese painting during this time, and the influence of the techniques of Jesuit artists on these conventions; (4) the Qianlong emperor inspecting water control methods along the Grand Canal and visiting the Silk Commissioner in Suzhou; (5) famous landmarks, such as the Grand Canal, Mount Tai, and Tiger Hill in the city of Suzhou.
    In addition, several complementary topical essays discuss the following: (a) how the government of 18th-century China impressed European political thinkers of the time; (b) the thriving and sophisticated economy of China under the Qing; (c) the role of silver in China's economy and the impact of the Chinese demand for silver on the world economy; (d) the creation of a multi-ethnic state in China, which students can compare with the contemporaneous Russian and Ottoman empires; (e) the creation of the 'Canton system.'"

    Resource suggested via H-Asia mailinglist (20 Dec 2006) by Roberta H. Martin, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Added 25 Dec 2006 (HL)

    Very useful
    China um 1900 in den Augen der Zeit (China around 1900 in contemporary sources) (Diana Ehrenwert, Austria)
    (http://www.china1900.info/).
    Language: German.
    Self description: "These pages bring to you what eyes have seen in China a hundred years ago, what ears have heard and brushes and quills have noted. They convey what Chinese literati and Western adventurers, scientists, diplomats and missionaries have lived to see around 1900 in Peking, Shanghai, Tsingdao, ..., and what they thought. If we borrow their open eyes and follow their thoughts then we will see -- surprisingly enough: ourselves. We will better understand the China of today and gain new perspectives on the world we live in now. The men and women of those days can help us make a better guess on what the future will bring to us [...] [tr. from German by HL]."
    Description: A wonderful tour into old China, providing views and commentaries from a wealth of different contemporary sources such as entries from the famous German encyclopaedia "Meyers Großes Konversationslexikon", talks given by Otto Franke at the beginning of the last century, polemics by Gu Hongming, novels by Guo Moruo and Ba Jin, and many more (the whole list is given in the bibliography).
    Site contents: (1) Einleitung (introduction); (2) Orte (places); (3) Literati und Abenteurer (literati and adventurers); (4) Leben (life); (5) Einschnitte (events); (6) Verwendete Bücher (bibliography).
    Resource suggested by Diana Ehrenwert, Austria.
    Added 30 May 2003 (HL)

    Very useful
    Treaty Ports & Extraterritoriality (Philip R. Abbey, San Diego, CA, USA)
    (http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/5048/TREATY01.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: Although Philip Abbey (currently management analyst, Water Dept., City of San Diego, CA, USA) has no background in Chinese Studies, this page is a nice paper on the history of treaty ports in China. Site contents: (1) Extraterritoriality (a short introduction); (2) Flags of the Treaty Powers Prior to World War I; (3) Treaty Ports, Settlements & Concessions (incl. several maps and photos); (4) Foreign Colonies; (5) Termination of Treaty Rights; (6) Nepal & Tibet; (7) Foreign Forces in China; (8) Americans in China; (9) Treaty of Wangsia, 1844 (extract); (10) American Forces in China; (11) List of Treaty Ports, Settlements & Concessions; (12) Links to Related Pages & Bibliography.
    Resource suggested by Philip R. Abbey, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Added/revised on 28. Feb. 1999 (HL)

    Essential!
    Bibliography of Photo Albums related to China before 1949 (Thomas Hahn, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA)
    (http://www.library.cornell.edu/wason/Photoweb/).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "My bibliography supplies rather exhaustive data on a variety of issues concerning the albums (which may in fact be reprints or modern publications of, say, postcards printed in Hong Hong in the late thirties). Besides the usual bibliographical description such as Author/editor, date and place of printing etc. I try to trace the fotographers themselves under a biographical heading. The precise number of images is given, their actual (or average) size, whether they are b/w or colour, with which camera they were taken, which film was used, and, above all, what the fotographs themselves show." Coverage: 164 entries (May 1999), with English annotations and German keywords.
    Note: Frames capable browser needed! Other browsers please use http://www.library.wisc.edu/guides/EastAsia/photoweb/photoweb.htm to enter.
    Added 31 May 1999, last revised 2 June 2002 (
    HL)

    Essential!
    Shanghai in Images (Institut d'Asie Orientale, Lyon, France; Center for Chinese Studies, Univ. of California, USA; Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative)
    (http://sdocument.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/IaoDatabase/ShanghaiPictures/index.php).
    Language: English, French.
    Self description: "'Shanghai in Images' is the fruit of a collaboration between the Institute of East Asian Studies (Lyon 2 University - Lyon 3 University ?CNRS), the Center for Chinese Studies (University of California, Berkley) and ECAI (Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative). This database has as its vocation to put forward a history of this great Chinese metropolis through photographs. [...]"
    Description: This extremely useful database is part of the IAO-Databases project and contains 1213 images (May 2002). The images contain basic metadata (often including a short description) and are searchable according to the following criteria: title/subject; keywords - general; date; estimated periods; location; action; caption on print; caption on support; support; author; nature; repository; published; keywords - street name; misc. information. Combined search is possible, as is access via different albums (river; street; school; church; building).
    Added 02 Jun 2002 (HL)

    Very useful
    600 Years of Urban Planning and Development In and Around Tianjin, 1404-2004 (Wason Collection on East Asia, Kroch Library, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA)
    (http://wason.library.cornell.edu/Tianjin/).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "[...] With the largest body of foreign architecture preserved on Chinese soil today, Tianjin represents a text book case regarding the political dimensions of colonial architecture, urban planning and the socio-economic relations between the East and the West. It was home to important historical figures, such as the last emperor of China (Pu Yi), or former President Herbert Hoover, who was stationed in Tianjin (together with the future First Lady) as an army engineer in 1899/1900; or the famous scholar Liang Qichao. [...] The exhibit aims to show how Tianjin developed as a colonial, urban "collage city" of very diverse style and orientation; how the various parts and pieces (nine tenth of them of foreign extraction) defined themselves architecturally and socially; and how the parts constituted a functioning whole which dominated most of the economic and cultural landscape of Northern China for almost 100 years."
    Site contents: (1) Chinese Architecture; (2) Foreign Architecture; (3) Historical Background; (4) City Maps; (5) Commerce, Industries, and Finance; (6) Noteworthy People (Liang Qichao; Zhou Enlai; Pu Yi; Lord Elgin; Li Hongzhang; Eric Henry Liddell; John Hersey; Ma Sanli; Hongyi fashi (Li Shutong); Ni Ren Zhang (i.e. Zhang Mingshan); Yuan Shikai; Li Yuanhong; Cao Yu; Zhang Xueliang; Zhang Xiangwen; Herbert Hoover); (7) Expatriates.
    Resource posted by Thomas H. Hahn to H-Asia list on 11 Apr 2004.
    Added 23 Jan 2005 (HL)

    明清研究會 (Ming-Ch'ing Studies) (Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)
    (http://www.sinica.edu.tw/~mingching/).
    Language: Chinese (Big5), some parts also in English.
    Description: "Academia Sinica, in collaboration with scholars from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds who research the Ming-Ch'ing periods, has established a Ming-Ch'ing website. This inter-disciplinary website will provide information on upcoming events and meetings related to our Ming-Ch'ing study group as well as any activities that may take place. The site also provides summaries of scholars' works, publications, and their most recent research plans. We will provide the contents of periodicals and journals related to Ming-Ch'ing studies for the last five years for scholars to peruse. We are also at the moment setting up an email discussion group using the email address below." (Cited from Michael J. Walsh's contribution to the H-Asia Discussionlist, Jan. 13, 1999).
    Added/revised on 16.01.1999 (HL)

    Useful
    La China en España : Elaboración de un corpus digitalizado de documentos españoles sobre China de 1555 a 1900 (China in Spain : a digitized corpus of Spanish documents on China from 1555 to 1900) (Escola d'Estudis de l'Àsia Oriental, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain)
    (http://www.upf.es/fhuma/eeao/projectes/che/principal.htm).
    Language: Spanish.
    Cited description: "This project tries to locate, transcribe, digitize and publish Spanish resources on China from the 16th to the 19th century. [...] During the first phase of the project, which is supported by a grant from the Ministry of Education and Culture and will take three years, the following resources will be investigated:
    a) Documents of the 16th and 17th centuries, with special emphasis on missionary's reports from their travels to China, and on documents related to the rites controversy.
    b) Documents referring to the relations between China and the Philippines in the 16th and 17th centuries, with special emphasis on the relations of the governors of the Philippines with China and the treatment of Chinese emigrants in the Philippines.
    c) Spanish documents of the 19th century referring to the foreign penetration of China and the resulting social convulsions. [...]"
    [Spanish text tr. by HL]
    Description: Currently [June 2006] the site contains some 120 documents manually transcribed from their originals, including some bibliographical meta data. Unfortunately no search function is included.
    Contents: (1) Introduction; (2) Chronological index; (3) Author's index; (4) Index of archives; (5) Useful links.
    Resource suggested by Nicolas Standaert, Leuven University, Belgium.
    Added 8 Jul 2006 (HL)

    History - China:   Up | General | Premodern China | Modern China | Republic | PR China

    Republican China (1911-1949)

    Tales of Old China
    (http://www.talesofoldchina.com/).
    This site offers information on the following topics: Introduction; Library; Quotes; Excerpts; China Journal; Reading; Arrogance; Map Room; Postcards; Photo Gallery; Money; Shanghai; Peking; Other places; Links.
    Last revised 8 Jan 2003 (JH).

    Essential!
    The Rev. Claude L. Pickens, Jr. Collection on Muslims in China (The Harvard College Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, US)
    (http://hcl.harvard.edu/libraries/harvard-yenching/collections/pickens/).
    Language: English.
    Supplied note: "[The site] is the culmination of a two-year project to catalog and digitize some 1000 photos of China's Muslim population in western China in the 1920s and 1930s and the activities of Christian missionaries working among them. Much of what appears in the photographs has been reported to have been lost or destroyed. The related finding aid to printed material in the collection points to an extensive collection of materials related to Islam in general and Islam in China in particular. We hope that in another year or so to be able to digitize some of the more obscure print materials to make them viewable on-line through a page-turner system. When we created the finding aid, the system could not accept Chinese or Arabic script, so the records appear in romanization only. Some of the printed materials (particularly, posters) also appear in the image catalog (VIA) [...]." [RL]
    Contents: (1) Biographical Note; (2) Islam in China: A Selected Bibliography of English-Language Publications; (3) Finding Aid to the Collection; (4) View the Photographs in the VIA Catalog.
    Resource suggested via the AS WWW Monitor, May 2006, Vol. 13, No. 6 (249) by Raymond Lum, Harvard-Yenching Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA).
    Added 27 May 2006 (HL)

    Very useful
    Thomas H. Hahn docu-images (Thomas H. Hahn, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA)
    (http://hahn.zenfolio.com/).
    Language: English.
    Cited description: "The galleries on display here belong to the category of documentary photography. The main subject area is China and that country's rather rapid transformation from a rural to an urban-centered society. Taken together, these galleries constitute a visual archive that for the most part is meant to capture and to preserve information (or 'evidence of certain developments' perhaps). Only sometimes are these photographs suggestive or interpretive. [...]
    As of October 2006, specific themes prevalent in these galleries are: 1. Chinese modern art; 2. Urbanization and architecture (both historical and modern); 3. Daoist and/or Buddhist mountains, monasteries and 'theme parks'; 4. The city of Tianjin (formerly known as Tientsin); 5. Views of the cities Fuzhou and Yangzhou; 6. Impressions of Tibet (scanned photographs from my visit in 1986)."

    Contents: (1) China urban planning materials; (2) Contemporary Chinese art (including Factory 798); (3) Tibetan lands and people; (4) Historical material (Yuanming yuan, ca. 1870; Dayi Landlord Exhibition; Yunnan 1944); and many other topics.
    Resource suggested via Asian Studies WWW Monitor (07 Dec 2006) by Thomas H. Hahn.
    Added 16 Dec 2006 (HL)

    Very useful
    Joint Study of the Sino-Japanese War 1931-45 (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA)
    (http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~asiactr/sino-japanese/).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "This multi-year project seeks to expand research into Sino-Japanese conflict between 1931 and 1945 by promoting cooperation among scholars and institutions in China, Japan, the United States, and other nations. An initial planning conference was held in Tokyo in January 2000. The summary report from this meeting provides further detail on the scope of this project, as well as plans for future conferences."
    Site contents: Summary of January 2000 meeting and Conference Papers; Related Conferences and Symposia; Recent Publications; Official Sources and Media Sites; Chinese-Language Materials; English-Language Materials; Japanese-Language Materials; Materials in Other Languages; Research Forum.
    Resource suggested via the Asian Studies WWW Monitor (07 Nov 2000) by Steve Phillips (sphillip@cais.com).
    Added 26 Nov 2000 (HL)

    The CCP and the Fujian Rebellion (Frederick S. Litten, Republican China 14.1 (Nov. 1988), pp. 57-74.)
    (http://litten.de/fulltext/fujian1.htm).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "The following is an abridged and slightly changed translation of chapter two of my M.A. thesis on Otto Braun's early activities in China. [...] The article begins with a short introduction to the background and then presents some information on Chinese Communist historiography of the rebellion. Additionally two important accounts by Otto Braun and the Russian A. G. Krymov are being summarized. Thereafter I will examine three problems more closely: the political co-operation between the CCP and the Fujian rebels, the military co-operation between them, and CCP-internal discussions at that time."
    Description: Article originally published in: Republican China, vol. 14, no. 1 (Nov. 1988), pp. 57-74.
    Added 29 Dec 2000 (HL)

    Did Chiang Kai-shek Trigger the Fujian Rebellion? A look at some Western archival documents (Frederick S. Litten, Asien 58 (Jan. 1996), pp. 54-56)
    (http://litten.de/fulltext/fujian2.htm).
    Language: English.
    Description: A short article originally published in the German journal Asien, No. 58, January 1996, pp. 54-56.
    Resource suggested by Frederick Litten (F.S.Litten@lrz.uni-muenchen.de).
    Added 29 Dec 2000 (HL)

    Essential!
    Japanese Army's Atrocities - Nanjing (China News Digest)
    (http://www.cnd.org/njmassacre/).
    Language: English. Some of the material is in Chinese (GB or GIF).
    Description: "This is an archive for historical documents and photographies related to the Nanjing Massacre, and other atrocities committed by the Japanese army in China during WW II". Page provides access to many useful texts on the Nanjing Massacre of December 1937.

    Essential!
    WWW Memorial Hall of the Victims in the Nanjing Massacre (1937-1938) 萬維網南京大屠殺遇難同胞紀念館 (C. Cheung, Hong Kong)
    (http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/NanjingMassacre/NM.html).
    Language: Most of the material is in English, but the homepage itself is also available in Chinese (Big5 as well as GB).
    Description: This page is a private endeavor of C. Chang, a Chinese who has been "living, studying, and working in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and mainland China for a considerable length of time". You'll find a wealth of relevant material collected from all over the Net. This page is really a good example of what the Internet could be worth.
    Added 11 Nov 1997 (HL), last revised 28 Jul 2006 (HL).

    Essential!
    Online Documentary: The Nanking Atrocities (Masato Kajimoto, University of Missouri-Columbia, USA)
    (http://www.geocities.com/nankingatrocities/).
    Language: English.
    Resource type: Study.
    Self description: "[C]omprehensive accounts of the Nanking Atrocities that took place 1937-38 Nanking, China during the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War. It includes interviews with leading historians in this field as well as historical photographs and a number of other documented materials such as newspaper articles, diaries of former Japanese soldiers and American missionaries who were in Nanking when the incident took place, and the judgment of the Tokyo War Crimes Trial."
    Description: This site is an August 2000 thesis, by Masato Kajimoto, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Journalism in the Graduate School of Journalism of the University of Missouri-Columbia. An online documentary which gives a very good overview of the events and the historical debate including interviews and videos. The full-text with footnotes is downloadable.
    Site contents: (1) Introduction (From Marco Polo Bridge to Nanking; Focal Points of the Nanking Atrocities Today; (Video) China Invaded); (2) The Fall of Nanking (What Foreign Journalists Witnessed; (Reference) The New York Times Articles; (Video) The Battle of China); (3) The Reign of Terror (What Japanese Journalists Witnessed; The Safety Zone and American Missionaries; (Reference) What Westerners Witnessed; (Video) China Invaded); (4) Confessions of Former Soldiers (Killing Prisoners of War; The Yamada Detachment; Rape and Pillage; (Video) The Battle of China); (5) Psychological Warfare (Chinese Propaganda; Japanese Propaganda; (Video) Nanking); (6) The Postwar Judgment (International Military Tribunal for the Far East; Nanking War Crimes Tribunal; (Reference) The Judgment of the IMTFE; (Photo Gallery) The Tokyo Trial); (7) The Nanking Atrocities in the 1990s (The Death Toll - Early Estimates; The Death Toll - Current Estimates; The Controversy in Japan; (Photo Gallery) Nanking City); (8) Works Cited (Selected bibliography of books, journals, newspapers, and films / List of interviewees / Other references / Military Postcards).
    Note: Acrobat Reader for downloading the full-text needed! RealPlayer for viewing the videos needed!
    Resource suggested via the Asian Studies WWW Monitor (12 Aug. 2000) by Masato Kajimoto, University of Missouri-Columbia, USA.
    Added 17 Aug 2000 (HL), last revised 30 Oct 2004 (HL)

    Useful
    Suo Pei: Supporters On-line Network (Society to Support the Demands of Chinese War Victims, Tokyo, Japan)
    (http://www.threeweb.ad.jp/~suopei/).
    Language: Japanese (JIS), English.
    Description: Established on August 7, 1995, the Society to Support the Demands of Chinese War Victims is one of the largest organizations supporting lawsuits of Chinese war victims against the Japanese government. Site contents: (1) Why to Support Chinese war-victims?; (2) Summary of Incidents Caused by the Former Japanese Military; (3) Chinese War-Victim's Testimony; (4) Points at Issue in the Lawsuits.
    Added/revised on 12.11.1998 (HL)

    Useful
    Nanking 1937 (Princeton Univ., USA)
    (http://www.princeton.edu/~nanking/).
    Language: English.
    Description: Although intended as a conference announcement in commemoration of the 60th birthday of the Nanjing Massacre of 1937 (held between 21 and 22 Novermber 1997 at Princeton Univ.), the pages also contain a few basic information on this dark part of history, including a gallery with some pictures taken during the massacre by Japanese soldiers (you should be able to stand shocking material) and a list of links to related sites.
    Note: Frames capable browser needed!
    Added/revised on 11.11.1997

    History - China:   Up | General | Premodern China | Modern China | Republic | PR China

    People's Republic of China (since 1949)

    Essential!
    Cold War International History Project (CWIHP) (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, DC, USA)
    (http://cwihp.si.edu/).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "CWIHP was established at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C., in 1991 with the generous support of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.The Cold War International History Project disseminates new information and perspectives on the history of the Cold War, in particular new findings from previously inaccessible sources on "the other side" -- the former Communist world."
    Description: A top quality resource for the history of the cold war. Its Virtual Archive is fully searchable (try a quick search for "china"), but also files the documents according to the following topics: (1) Bulletin Issue; (2) Keywords; (3) Keyword/Subject; (4) Keyword/Year; (5) Collection; (6) Geographic Subject. Includes among others important original sources on Sino-US and Sino-Soviet relations from the 1960s.
    Site contents: (1) Upcoming Events; (2) CWIHP Bulletin (recently released and translated documents from former Communist-world archives, along with brief introductions by leading Cold War historians and archivists); (3) CWIHP Working Paper Series (outlet for historians who have gained access to newly-available archives and sources and would like to share their results); (4) CWIHP Virtual Archive (all material from the Bulletin and the Working Paper Series fully available on-line; includes searching facility).
    Note: All material freely available!
    Added 27 Jul 2001 (HL)

    Interesting
    Sinophilia - History (Diana Lavarini & Anna del Franco, Italy)
    (http://www.sinophilia.org/history.htm).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "Our history section concentrates on the history of the People's Republic of China, with particular emphasis on Communist propaganda and its various forms of expression. A series of reports on the Chinese way of life aims to provide a comprehensive image of contemporary China."
    Description: Diana Lavarini and Anna del Franco are graduates in Oriental Languages and Literatures at Venice University, Italy.
    Site contents: (1) Reports from the PRC (China from within between 1999 and 2000); (2) Propagandist publications (Tibet: a "pacific" liberation; Barefoot doctors of the Cultural Revolution; The Great Leap Forward; Mao and the others; The Little White Hen: a propagandist children story); (3) Propagandist art (Socialist realism and the cult of Mao Zedong).
    Resource suggested by Diana Lavarini, Sinophilia Homepage, Italy.
    Added 19 Apr 1999 (HL), last revised 04 May 2004 (HL).

    An Illustrated History of the Communist Party of China (China Internet Information Center, Beijing, China)
    (http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/45954.htm).
    Language: English.
    Description: This site is part of the "authorized government portal site to China, www.china.org.cn" (中国网). It offers a survey to CCP history up to 1991 in 6 chapters, each with an introduction, and 30 to 48 images. In addition there is a short essay on the party in general. The images are presented as thumbnails (up to 12 on one page, all squeezed to square format) that can be opened in a new window with a short caption.
    Site contents: (1) Foreword; (2) The Communist Party of China (a. The Nature and Guiding Ideology; b. Guide in Action; c. Establishment and Development; d. The Basic Line at Present Stage and the Basic Stand in International Affairs; e. Organizational System; f. The Central Organizations); (3) Maturing Through Struggles (July 1921-July 1937); (4) Mainstay of the War of Resistance Against Japan (July 1937-August 1945); (5) Striving for Nationwide Victory of the Democratic Revolution (August 1945-September 1949); (6) From New Democratic Revolution to Socialism (October 1949-September 1956); (7) The Zigzag Course of Socialist Construction (September 1956-October 1976); (8) A New Era of Socialist Modernization Construction (October 1976-April 1991).
    Added 2 Mar 2005 (MA)

    Very useful
    Foreign relations of the United States, 1964-1968 (Harriet Dashiell Schwar, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1998 )
    (http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/vol_xxx/index.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: This site is part of the U.S. Department of State website and contains declassified archival material on the diplomatic relations between the USA and China between 1964 and 1968. The material is presented in the Department of State's documentary series "Foreign policy and diplomacy of the United States". The documents in this volume are drawn from the files of the Department of State and the Bureau, Office, and other lot files of the relevant Departmental units. The volume also includes records from the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
    Site contents: Documents related to: (1) China (PRC and ROC); (2) Tibet; (3) Mongolia.
    Resource suggested by Dan Martin (msyben@mscc.huji.ac.il) via The Asian Studies WWW Monitor, 24.09.2000.
    Added 29 Oct 2000 (HL)

    Essential!
    Morning Sun. A Film and Website about Cultural Revolution. (Long Bow Group, Brookline, MA, USA; 2003)
    (http://www.morningsun.org).
    Language: English and Chinese (GB).
    Self description: "A range of techniques and perspectives are used in the Morning Sun website to reflect on the origins and history of the Cultural Revolution (c.1964-1976). We approach the period not from a simplistic linear perspective, but from a panoptic one, encompassing a broad overview while allowing the user to focus in on individual histories, narratives and events that reveal the complex contradictory forces that led to an era of unrivalled revolutionary fervor and political turmoil."
    Description: The site makes extensive use of sound and film excerpts to evoke a very lively picture of the time. The quoted texts can be read in both Chinese and English, while the film or song plays. There is also a "Search Site" function (Google) available under "Site Map".
    Site contents: (1) About the Site; (2) Living Revolution (Listen to period music, watch excerpts from feature films, and read items such as the Little Red Book, personal diaries, and magazine articles); (3) Smash the Old World! (Read about the Four Olds, view photographs and posters); (4) Reddest Red Sun (Explore aspects of the Mao cult from buttons to medical miracles); (5) Stages of History (State-orchestrated history unfolds through dramatic events, from parades on Tiananmen Square to revolutionary model operas); (6) The East is Red (Read about The East is Red, its history and transformation from a simple folk tune to a stage epic on China's revolutionary history); (7) The Film; (8) Multimedia; (9) Images; (10) Library; (11) Sitemap.
    Note: Site makes use of Quicktime and Flash.
    Added 23 Dec 2004 (MA)

    The Virtual Museum of the "Cultural Revolution"
    (http://www.cnd.org/CR/).
    Language: English, Chinese.
    Description: Established by the China News Digest (CND) team: "Author Ba Jin once proposed that a museum be built to collect and display Cultural Revolution relics to preserve the history and to remind younger generations of the sufferings the nation had gone through since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. Near 20 years has passed but his wish has never come true. Thanks to the modern computer networking and information technologies, we are able to build such a museum now - in the cyberspace without a budget and approvals from any authorities!" Site is still under construction but might eventually become a valuable source of information.

    Very Useful
    Online Center of the Cultural Revolution Studies (Univ. of Pittsburgh, Ohio State Univ., Indiana Univ. at Bloomington)
    (http://www.lib.ohio-state.edu/OSU_profile/eacweb/default.htm).
    Language: Short introductions in English, documents in Chinese (Gif).
    Description: This is a project mainly funded by the University of Pittsburgh and undertaken by a few East Asian librarians from the Univ. of Pittsburgh, the Ohio State University and Indiana University at Bloomington. The purpose is to establish an online research center that collects a wide range of resources for the Cultural Revolution studies. Fulltext documents are available on (1) Heretical Thoughts in the Cultural Revolution; (2) Official Statistics; (3) Bibliography; (4) Oral History; (5) Major Events; (6) Monument of the Victims; (7) Cultural Revolution collections in major East Asian libraries; (8) Other Related Resources on the WWW. Since the page is still under construction, not all categories (Nov. 97: cat. 5-7) are currently available.
    Note: For some categories a frames capable browser is needed!
    Added/revised on 11.11.1997

    Very Useful
    中国1966-1976电子档案 = Chinese Digital Archive 1966-1976 (Scholarly Information Services/The Library at ANU, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia)
    (http://anulib.anu.edu.au/subjects/ap/digilib/chi/cr/china.html).
    Language: Chinese (GB), English (Metadata).
    Self description: "[...] The material selected for inclusion in this database have been in the first instance from the Cultural Revolution period. However, additional materials from outside this time-frame which are relevant to the events of the Cultural Revolution are also being included. Although most of the material is held in the Library, some material is held in private collections by academic staff at the ANU, who have been willing to have their materials included in the database. As part of its on-going committment to this project, Scholarly Information Services/The Library is working towards seeking additional international contributing partners who also hold relevant material on the Cultural Revolution period."
    Description: This interesting database currently (29 Jan 2005) contains 226 documents, comprising text documents and about 30 photographs, mostly from the Menzies Asian Special Collection. The documents are pdf scans of speeches and addresses, many hand-written. This is probably why no text is available in full-text, a major draw back of the database. Consequently, the search is limited to the metadata, which one would wish to be even more detailed. "Title" (in pinyin), "Subject", "Description", and "Creator" are the searchable fields, with each word in the Description field linked to the search-function. Users can mark single items as Favourite, lists of these Favourites are generated in html and may be mailed or put online.
    Site contents: (1) Home (with "General information about this site"); (2) Browse; (3) Search (All fields; Title field; Subject field; Description field); (4) My Favourites; (5) Help.
    Note: Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing PDF files needed.
    Added 30 Jan 2005 (MA), last revised 27 Jul 2006 (HL)

    Essential!
    Chinese Propaganda Posters (Stefan Landsberger, Leiden Univ., The Netherlands)
    (http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "The opening page of an ever growing number of pages devoted to Chinese propaganda posters. I've been collecting Chinese political posters for more than 25 years now, and have build up quite a nice collection of some 1,000 titles, a number which is still growing. From time to time, I'll upload new pages devoted to various subjects."
    Site contents: (1) On-line exhibitions (Visualizing the Future; New Year Prints (and chubby babies); Early Campaigns; Great Leap Forward; Iron Women and Foxy Ladies; Models and Martyrs; Heroes and Villains; Huxian Peasant Painters; Party and State Leaders; People's Liberation Army; National Minorities; The Mao Cult; Cultural Revolution Campaigns; After the Attack; Socialist Spiritual Civilization; Political Reform; Environment; Hygiene; Legal Knowledge; Population Policy; Reunifications; Sports; Earthquakes; Song and Dance; The Elderly; Falun Gong); (2) Bibliography; (3) Links and Favorites; (4) Artists and Designers (being an unannotated name index to the posters). (Cited partly from the Asian Studies WWW Monitor 22 Oct 1998).
    Information supplied by Michael de Nie (mwdenie@cs.wisc.edu).
    Added 17 Mar 1999 (HL), last revised 23 Feb 2001 (HL)

    Very useful
    Rethinking Cultural Revolution Culture (Barbara Mittler, Univ. of Heidelberg, Germany)
    (http://www.sino.uni-heidelberg.de/conf/propaganda/).
    Language: English.
    Self description: "[...] features posters from the Centre for the Study of Democracy of University of Westminster collection in London as well as video and audio-footage formerly exhibited and prepared at Indiana University and Ohio State Universtiy, USA."
    Description: A very rich Web site accompanying the exhibition "Picturing Power: Art and Propaganda in the Great Proletarian! Cultural Revolution". Currently only the posters are available (each one going with a descripiton; the posters are available in three sizes), but the audio-visual material will go on-line soon. The "Music" section also contains a few introductory texts.
    Site contents: (1) Home; (2) Workshop (Concept; Schedule; Participants); (3) Exhibition (Concept; Pictures; Music).
    Added 23 Feb 2001 (HL)

    Very useful
    Picturing Power: Posters of the Cultural Revolution (The Huntington Archive, Ohio State University, USA)
    (http://kaladarshan.arts.ohio-state.edu/exhib/poster/exhibintro.html).
    Language: English.
    Resource type: Documents.
    Self description: "Online exhibition features [PRC's] Cultural Revolution posters from the University of Westminster Centre for the Study of Democracy, U.K. - approximately 10% of collection. [...]"
    Description: 74 posters (1963-1979) with very good descriptions including - where available - name of artist, date, title in Chinese characters and in English translation, and some background information on the poster.
    Note: Frames capable browser needed!
    Resource suggested via the Asian Studies WWW Monitor (06 Oct 1999) by Janice M. Glowski (glowski.1@osu.edu).
    Added/revised on 18 Oct 1999 (HL)

    The Chairman Smiles. Posters from the former Soviet Union, Cuba and China (International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
    (http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/chairman/).
    Language: English.
    Description: Self description: "The former Soviet Union, Cuba and China: three countries where posters played an important political role and got a large amount of artistic attention as well. This is a selection of 99 political posters, famous masterpieces next to equally beautiful, but unknown examples, drawn from the collection of the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam." The site contains 33 posters from China, covering the years between 1950 and 1992. Each poster is presented (if available) with name of designer, year of production, title, publisher, size, collector, and a short description with background information. Separate pages with additional information are provided on: (1) designers; (2) collecting and collectors; (3) the conservation of posters (NOG fund); (4) this site and the copyright of the images; (5) postcard reproductions; and (6) further reading.
    Added 20 Nov 1998 (HL), last revised 8 Jan 2003 (JH).

    Chinese Pop Posters (Olivier Laude, Atlas Magazine, Winter 1996)
    (http://www.atlasmagazine.com/illust/china_posters/index.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: A sequence of 24 Chinese propaganda posters (including a few stamps), collected by Olivier Laude, editor of the Atlas Magazine, and showing "images of revolutionaries, babies with peaches, generals on horses and babies with fishes". "These posters are used to decorate the walls of schools, private homes and government institutions. They are produced by the central government in Beijing and reflect the many political changes of the past 47 years of communist rule. They are in many ways a very good historical record of theeconomic, political and social turmoils China has undergone since 1949. They also are tools of the central government's propaganda machine" (from Olivier Laude's introduction to "Chinese Pop Posters"). The site has an informative introduction, and most of the posters are commented on. Unfortunately no general index is provided, so you have to browse the posters one by one.
    Added/revised on 20.11.1998 (HL)

    Cultural Revolution Posters (China Books & Periodicals, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA)
    (http://www.chinabooks.com/Catalog/cultrev.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: A collection of 26 Chinese propaganda posters sold by China Books & Periodicals (mostly sold out already). The page includes a picture and short descriptions of the posters.
    Added/revised on 20.11.1998 (HL)

    Very useful
    Badges of Chairman Mao Zedong
    (http://museums.cnd.org/CR/old/maobadge/).
    Language: English.
    Description: By Bill Bishop, 1996. This scholarly paper gives "a general overview of Mao badges during the Cultural Revolution and the resurgence of these badges in recent years."
    Last revised 8 Jan 2003 (JH).

    Very useful
    China and the United States. From Hostility to Engagement, 1960-1998 (= National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 18) (Jeffrey T. Richelson (ed.), National Security Archive, The George Washington University, Washington DC, USA 1999)
    (http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB19/).
    Language: English.
    Resource type: Documents.
    Self description: "Several years ago the National Security Archive initiated a project to shed more light on U.S.-China relations. The purpose was to obtain critical documentation on key aspects of the U.S.-Chinese relationship, with a focus on the years 1969 to the present. Through Freedom of Information Act requests, collection of relevant publications, and archival research, the archive has amassed a collection of approximately 15,000 pages of documentation on U.S.-China interaction on foreign policy issues, the U.S.-PRC military relationship, the growing economic relationship between the two countries, as well as documents related to the several issues that separate the countries. The documents, which include policy and research studies, intelligence estimates, diplomatic cables, and briefing materials, are published (with the exception of Document 15) in the the NSA's China and the United States: From Hostility to Engagement, 1960-1998 document set, part of the Archive's Special Collection Series. The following documents represent a small sample of the documents contained in the set."
    Site contents: (1) Special National Intelligence Estimate, "Communist China's Advanced Weapons Program," July 24, 1963; (2) National Security Study Memorandum 124, "Next Steps Towards the People's Republic of China, "April 19, 1971; (3) Memorandum for the Chairman, NSC Senior Review Group, "NSSM 124: Next Steps Toward the People's Republic of China (PRC)"; (4) Special National Intelligence Estimate, "Security Conditions in China", February 10, 1972; (5) The White House, Memorandum of Conversation, [Participants include Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Richard Nixon, and Henry Kissinger], February 21, 1972; (6) Message, White House to U.S. Liaison Office, Peking, August 9, 1974; (7) Memorandum for the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, "U.S. Security Assistance to the Republic of China: NSSM 212," April 12, 1976; (8) National Security Decision Directive 140, "The President's Visit to the People's Republic of China," April 21, 1984; (9) Defense Intelligence Agency, Defensive Estimative Brief, "Nuclear Weapons Systems in China, "April 24, 1984; (10) Cable, Department of State to U.S. Embassy Bonn, "Background on Chinese Missile Sales," September 29, 1988; (11) Department of State Briefing Paper, "Chinese Prisons and Forced Labor," April 25, 1991; (12) Secretary of Defense William J. Perry, Memorandum for the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, "U.S-China Military Relationship," August 1994; (13) DIA, Biographic Sketch, "General CHI Haotian," October 1995; (14) Office of Naval Intelligence, "Chinese Exercise Strait 961: 8-25 March 1996."; (15) DIA, Biographic Sketch, "Lieutenant General XIONG Guangkai," October 1996.
    Added 12 Jul 2000 (HL)

    Very useful
    Record of Historic Richard Nixon-Zhou Enlai Talks in February 1972 (Now Declassified) (National Security Archive, The George Washington University, Washington DC, USA)
    (http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/publications/DOC_readers/kissinger/nixzhou/).
    Language: English.
    Supplied note: "The first U.S. president to visit China, Nixon [... established] a new political relationship with the PRC after decades of mutual estrangement. The highlight of Nixon's trip was his meeting with Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong but its substance lay in a series of almost-daily [21-28 February 1972] extended conversations with Premier Zhou Enlai. [...] Once highly classified [...] all but three of the documents were released in their entirety. Significant excisions appear in the Nixon-Zhou discussions of Taiwan, Japan, South Asia, and the Soviet Union."
    Note: A series of gif-images of the original conversation memoranda. The images are loading quickly.
    Resource suggested via the Asian Studies WWW Monitor (12 Apr 1999) by scout-report@hypatia.cs.wisc.edu.
    Added on 14 Apr 1999, last revised on 12 Jul 2000 (HL)

    Essential!
    Tiananmen Square, 1989. The Declassified History (= National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 16) (Jeffrey T. Richelson and Michael L. Evans, National Security Archive, The George Washington University, Washington DC, USA 1999)
    (http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB16/index.html).
    Language: English.
    Resource type: Documents.
    Self description: "The Chinese army crackdown in and around Tiananmen Square on June 4, 1989 had an enormous effect on the course of U.S.-China relations. The deaths of democracy protesters resulted in U.S. sanctions, suspensions of high-level contacts, and a halt in the transfer of military technology. The controversy continues to this day, as demonstrated by the reaction of many concerning President Clinton's decision to appear in the square with Chinese leaders during his June 1998 trip to China."
    Description: In addition to the documents themselves an introductory page explains the framework in which they have to be understood, and gives a short introduction to each document.
    Site contents: (1) Documents 1-6: Student Demonstrations in 1985-86; (2) Documents 7-11: On the Brink; (3) Documents 12-29: The Crackdown; (4) Documents 30-35: The Aftermath; (5) Postscript 1999: Ten Years after Tiananmen.
    Added on 12 Jul 2000
    Essential!
    The Gate of Heavenly Peace (Long Bow Group, Brookline, MA, USA)
    (http://tsquare.tv/).
    Language: English, Chinese.
    Self description: "[...] our website contains extensive information about the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, along with background material on recent Chinese history and human rights issues. The site also explores many underlying themes, such as democracy, human rights, reform and revolution, and nationalism. It has over 1200 pages in English and 800 pages in Chinese, as well as an 'interactive' map of Tiananmen Square and a Media Library with posters, photographs, music and more than fifty video clips. We have updated and improved the site, and it has now been moved permanently to a new, more secure server" (email from Nora Chang, Long Bow Group, 9 Oct. 2001).
    Description: "Information on the 1989 student pro-democracy movement in China and subsequent massacre. The site also offers resources on related information such as the Democracy Wall, Tiananmen Square and Wei Jingsheng. The Group's growing Digital Library of documentary material is also well worth a visit - it includes movie clips, stills and sound archives drawn mainly from the era of the PRC." (Asian Studies WWW Monitor, June 1996).
    Contents: (1) Film and Media (Media Library; Making of the Film; Characters; Reviews, Commentary, and Controversy; Transcript; Media Studies: Making the News); (2) Tiananmen Square Tour; (3) Themes (Democracy; Reform and Revolution; Human Rights; Making the News; Making History; Nationalism; Russia and Europe); (4) Chronology; (5) Additional Readings and Links (Beijing Spring 1989; Chinese Government Account; Role of the Media; Film-related themes and issues; Chinese Rock Music; ...); (6) Site Map; (7) Chinese Edition.
    Added 23 Jun 1996, last revised 21 Oct 2001 (HL)

    Very useful
    CNN In-Depth Specials - Tiananmen revisited (Cable News Network (CNN), USA)
    (http://asia.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/tiananmen/index.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: A CNN collection of documents, articles, and multimedia presentations on the June 4 1989 Tiananmen student protests.
    Site contents: (1) Tiananmen papers (articles on the the book by Zhang Liang, incl. an analysis by CNN analyst Willy Lam); (2) Who's who (Communist party figures); (3) A look back (The Tiananmen revolt digitally revisited; incl. film with student in front of tank); (4) 12th anniversary (How people are remembering June 4); (5) The right to protest (People who are standing up); (6) Zhang Liang on '89 (Interview with the compiler of the Tiananmen papers).
    Added 08 Jun 2001 (HL)

    Tiananmen, April-June 1989 - A Pictorial History (Christus Rex et Redemptor Mundi, [USA?])
    (http://www.christusrex.org/www1/sdc/tiananmen.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: A collection of some 250 (already well published) photos taken before, during and after the Tian'anmen incident in Beijing, 1989. The pictures are available in different sizes and arranged according to the following headings: The Quest for Freedom (64 images); The Confrontation (65 images); The Repression (57 images); The Massacre (June 4, 1989 - 50 images); The Worldwide Protest (37 images). The site gives no credit to the sources of the pictures or any information about their copyright.
    Added/revised on 30.12.1998 (HL)

    South China Morning Post - 1997 Handover
    (http://www.scmp.com/1997/).
    Presented by the South China Morning Post, this site offers information on the handover of Hong Kong to the PR China in July 1, 1997.
    Last revised 8 Jan 2003 (JH).


    History:   Top | East Asia | China | Hong Kong | Mongolia | Tibet | Taiwan | Singapore | Archaeology | Biographies
    Related:   Journals | Bibliography

    History: Hong Kong

    South China Morning Post - 1997 Handover
    (http://www.scmp.com/1997/).
    Presented by the South China Morning Post, this site offers information on the handover of Hong Kong to the PR China in July 1, 1997.
    Last revised 8 Jan 2003 (JH).


    History:   Top | East Asia | China | Hong Kong | Mongolia | Tibet | Taiwan | Singapore | Archaeology | Biographies
    Related:   Journals | Bibliography

    History: Mongolia

    Very useful
    Mongolian history : Online resources (The Indo-Mongolian Society of New York, New York, USA)
    (http://www.mongolianculture.com/mhistory.html).
    Language: English.
    Supplied note: "The Indo-Mongolian Society of New York has created a Mongolian history and culture website offering on-line resources for a range of information about Mongolia, Mongol history and related topics. [...] The website also contains a very large compilation of Mongolian History and related information on-line resources. [...] The website also offers Indo-Mongolian Society lecture papers, excerpts from books, and other Mongolian history articles. These include some of the following:
    'Chinggis Khan and the Talking Rhino of India', 'The Name of the Mongols' (Mongol to Mughal) both papers by Prof. Igor de Rachewiltz. 'The Legacy of Genghis Khan in Law and Politics' by Prof. Robert D. McChesney, 'Mongol Empire's Organizational Innovation' by Prof. Thomas Barfield, excerpts from 'Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World' by Prof. Jack Weatherford."
    - lk.
    Contents: (1) History of the Mongols; (2) Genghis Khan ?Chinggis Khan; (3) Mongol Military Campaigns; (4) Yuan Dynasty ?Mongol China; (5) Ilkhanid Dynasty ?Mongol Iran; (6) Ulus Chaghatay Dynasty ?Mongol Central Asia; (7) Golden Horde Dynasty ?Mongol Russia; (8) Mongol Invasions of Japan; (9) Mongols in South East Asia; (10) Post-Empire and Modern Mongolia; (11) Mongolian Women in History; (12) Nomadic Civilization ?Pastoral Nomadism and Inner Asian History; (13) Religious History of the Mongols; (14) Art of the Mongol Empire; (15) Other Mongolian History Images; (16) Other Articles About Mongolian History; (17) Mongol Empire Maps; (18) Mongolian History Timelines; (19) Central Asian Tribal Groups History; (20) Siberian Tribal Groups; (21) The Manchus; (22) The Silk Road; (23) Silk Road Art; (24) Silk Road Frescoes of Dunhuang; (25) Historical Maps; (26) Period Photos: Mongol, Tibetan, Siberian and Central Asian Subjects; (27) Indian Historical Cultural Influence in Central Asia, Gandaharan, Bactrian, Sogdian, Parthian and Sarmation Art.
    Resource suggested via the H-Asia mailinglist (05 May 2006) by via Asian Studies WWW Monitor by Lyle Krahl.
    Added 23 Jun 2006 (MA)


    History:   Top | East Asia | China | Hong Kong | Mongolia | Tibet | Taiwan | Singapore | Archaeology | Biographies
    Related:   Journals | Bibliography

    History: Tibet

    American Covert Operations in Tibet (Univ. of Michigan, USA)
    (http://web.archive.org/web/20000516085000/http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mjanson/tibet.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: An undergraduate political science paper by Michael Janson on CIA support (1955-1973) for Tibetan resistance.
    Last revised 8 Jan 2003 (JH).

    Very useful
    Foreign relations of the United States, 1964-1968 (Harriet Dashiell Schwar, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1998 )
    (http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/vol_xxx/index.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: This site is part of the U.S. Department of State website and contains declassified archival material on the diplomatic relations between the USA and China between 1964 and 1968. The material is presented in the Department of State's documentary series "Foreign policy and diplomacy of the United States". The documents in this volume are drawn from the files of the Department of State and the Bureau, Office, and other lot files of the relevant Departmental units. The volume also includes records from the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
    Site contents: Documents related to: (1) China (PRC and ROC); (2) Tibet; (3) Mongolia.
    Resource suggested by Dan Martin (msyben@mscc.huji.ac.il) via The Asian Studies WWW Monitor, 24.09.2000.
    Added 29 Oct 2000 (HL)


    History:   Top | East Asia | China | Hong Kong | Mongolia | Tibet | Taiwan | Singapore | Archaeology | Biographies
    Related:   Journals | Bibliography

    History: Taiwan

    Essential!
    漢籍電子文獻 (Scripta Sinica) (Academia Sinica Computer Center (ASCC), Taiwan)
    (http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3).
    Language: Chinese (Big5).
    Resource type: Fulltext database.
    Description: One of the major fulltext database projects currently under way. The texts are carefully proofread and relatively reliable. Currently (Oct 1999) the database contains some 140 mio characters, growth rate is 10 mio characters per annum. Although the search program is extremely mighty, most of its capabilities remain unexploited in the WWW version (see note below).
    Site contents: (1) 二十五史 (25 Histories); (2) 十三經注疏 (13 Classics with Commentaries); (3) 上古漢語語料庫 - 摘要 (Ancient Chinese Texts - excerpts) (includes Lunyu 論語, Mengzi 孟子, Mozi 墨子, Zhuangzi 莊子, Xunzi 荀子, Hanfeizi 韓非子, Lücshi chunqiu 呂氏春秋, Laozi 老子, Shangjunshu 商君書, Guanzi 管子, Yanzi chunqiu 晏子春秋, Sunzi 孫子); (4) 臺灣方志 (Local Histories of Taiwan); (5) 臺灣檔案 (Taiwan Historical Archive); (6) 臺灣文獻 (Documents from Taiwan); (7) 文心雕龍 Wenxin diaolong; (8) 佛經三論 (Three Treatises of Buddhist Canon); (9) 姚際恒著作集 (Collected Works of Yao Jiheng); (10) 新清史 - 本紀; (11) 樂府詩集.
    Access to the following parts of the database is restricted: (1) 諸子 (Pre-Han Philosophers); (2) 古籍十八種 (18 Ancient Texts); (3) 古籍三十四種 (34 Ancient Texts); (4) 大正新脩大藏經 (Taisho Tripitaka); (5) 清代經世文編; (6) 中華民國史事日誌 (Diary of the Republic of China, 1912-1949).
    Note: For sophisticated research purposes the telnet version remains the best solution. European scholars may use the telnet access to the 25 Histories at Heidelberg University. A detailed description of all its possiblities will be available there soon (Nov. 1999).
    Added/revised on 23 Oct 1999 (HL)

    Useful
    Pat Gunning's Taiwan Home Page
    (http://www.gunning.cafeprogressive.com/welctaiw.htm).
    Language: English.
    Description: Self description: "This page contains (a) facts about the Taiwan Government, (b) two recently completed relatively long essays [both articles are from 1996: 'What Should We Do About Taiwan?' & 'Central Planning vs. The Market Economy: The Chinese on Taiwan' - ed.], and (c) a variety of short essays that I have written about Taiwan, and (d) links to some related cites. About half of the short essays were published in one of the local English language newspapers." J. Patrick Gunning is Professor of Economics at the Institute of Public Finance in Taipei, Taiwan.
    Added 21 Nov 1997 (HL), last revised 8 Jan 2003 (JH).

    Useful
    台灣歷史 (The History of Taiwan) (Walter Chen, Taiwan)
    (http://www.leksu.com/).
    Language: Chinese (Big5) is available already, while English is in preparation.
    Description: This site gives a detailed account of the history of Taiwan, translated and abridged from "Taiwan: yonhyakunen no rekishi to tenbô 台灣:四百年の歷史と展望 (Taiwan: 400 Years of History and its Future Perspectives; Tokyo 1993) by Itô Kiyoshi 伊藤潔 (the last two chapters are own additions by Walter Chen). The text carries a strong political message in favor of an independent Taiwan. Site contents: (1) "Ilha Formosa!"; (2) Under the Dutch Rule; (3) The Tseng Regime; (4) Under the Ch'ing Rule; (5) The Republic of Taiwan; (6) Under the Japanese Rule; (7) The Colonial Modernization; (8) The World War II; (9) The February 28 Incident; (10) The Chiang Dictators; (11) An Economic Success; (12) A Speedy Democratization; (13) A Popular Elected President; (14) The Future Outlook.
    Added/revised on 27.12.1997

    Very useful
    Taiwan Documents Project (TDP) (Chi Yung-chang, Taiwan Documents Project, Los Angeles, USA)
    (http://www.taiwandocuments.org/).
    Language: English.
    Resource type: Documents.
    Self description: "[... A] collection of current and historical Taiwan-related international agreements and other documents [... examining] Taiwan's international relations, legal status, and history."
    Description: No sources are given for the texts (all English translations of the original documents).
    Site contents: (1) Summary of international agreements affecting Taiwan's status; (2) Discussion on the concept of sovereignty and methods of acquiring it; (3) Discussion on the impact of race, culture, history, human rights, global security, and other issues on the Taiwan Question; (4) Reference Map of Taiwan; (5) Treaties (1662-1978); (6) Japan Second World War Surrender Documents (Sep 1945); (7) Second World War Conference Declarations (1943-1945); (8) United States of America - People's Republic of China Joint Communiques (1972-1982); (9) Japan - People's Republic of China Joint Communiques and Other Statements (1972-1998); (10) United States Laws Governing Relations with Taiwan; (11) Taiwan-related United States Legislative Activity (103-106th Congress); (12) Pre-1949 Chinese Communist Party Documents relating to Taiwan; (13) United Nations Documents (1945-1999); (14) Law of Treaties (1933-1986); (15) Other Documents (Constitution of the RoC (1946-1997), February 28th Incident (1947-1997), Statements by the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan (1971-1999)); (16) Glossaries (Terms Used in Treaty-making, Terms Relating to Treaty Actions); (17) Taiwan-related Links.
    Resource suggested via the Asian Studies WWW Monitor (08 Oct 1999) by Yung-chang Chi (Yung-chang.Chi@juno.com).
    Added 13 Oct 1999, last revised 02 Nov 2000 (HL)

    Very useful
    Taiwan's Democratic Consolidation, 2000-2001: About 1000 Internet documents collected by Christan Goebel (M.A.) (Christian Goebel, University of Heidelberg, Germany ; Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS), University of Heidelberg, Germany)
    (http://www.sino.uni-heidelberg.de/dachs/goebel030214.htm).
    Language: English; parts of the resources in Chinese (Big5).
    Self description: "This small collection is the result of my online-harvest of newspaper articles and documents I deemed useful for my Master's thesis. The aim of the thesis was to trace the process of Taiwan's democratic consolidation. [...] The Internet proved to be a valuable source of information, as all of Taiwan's major newspapers and magazines can be accessed online, as well as all legal documents and many official statements. Apart from these sources, which form the bulk of my archive, I was also able to collect a number of Master's theses and a few extensive opinion surveys conducted by Academica Sinica's Institute of Anthropology. The material presented here covers mainly the years 2000 and 2001. Please note that these files only served as a supplement for what I could not find in print and were, at first, not intended to be accessed publicly. Neither do they constitute a complete collection on the various subjects they cover, nor is their naming always consistent."
    Description: Part of the growing Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS) project. Due to difficulties during data migration from the personal archive of Ch. Goebel to the DACHS archive, some parts originally in HTML format are available as text only and partly scrambled.
    Site contents: (1) Access the collection; (2) Introduction by C. Goebel; (3) Contents of the collection (3-in-one Elections; 4th Nuclear Power Plant; Banking Reforms; Black Gold Counter Measures; Black Gold; Business - Politics - Corruption; Working Papers of the Conference Group on Taiwan Studies (CGOTS); Civil Society; Constitutional Reform; Day-to-day Politics; Economic Indicators; Elections; Farmer's Associations; Freedom House 2002; Impeachment of Chen Shuibian; Institutional Reforms; Legislative Yuan Elections 2001; Legislative Yuan Elections: Resources; Laws; Lee Teng-hui; Legal Reforms; Lo Fu-chu; Local Elections 2001; Local Factions; Mini Three Links; National Assembly; Organized Crime; Parties; Regime Change; Relations with China; Small Construction Budget; Surveys Att. Change; TI (Transparency International) Source Book 2000; Vote Buying; Web Archives; Yunlin Commissioner Elections; Others).
    Note: Free password can be obtained by sending an email to the DACHS team.
    Added 18 Jul 2003 (HL)

    Essential!
    Formosa: Nineteenth Century Images (Reed College, Portland, OR, USA)
    (http://academic.reed.edu/formosa/).
    Language: English.
    Self description: Supplied note: "This digital library gathers together a large body of primarily European and American images of the island of Taiwan - called "Formosa" by many foreign visitors in the 19th Century - and its various peoples. These woodcuts, maps, linguistic data and textual representations were originally published in European and North American books and journals during the 19th Century, but are not easily accessible to those interested in the history of Taiwan."
    Site contents: Site contents: (1) Introduction; (2) Maps [90+ maps]; (3) Texts [approx. 30 travelogues, reports and ethnographies in full text]; (4) Images [100+ woodcuts, scetches and etchings]; (5) Linguistic Data [seven tables of comparative word lists]; (6) Timeline [under construction]; (7) Search; (8) Feedback; (9) Credits.
    Note: A fast internet connection and a higher quality monitor are suggested for users of this site.
    Resource suggested by Douglas Fix (douglas.fix@reed.edu) via the Asian Studies WWW Monitor (26 Aug 2000).
    Added 07 Sep 2000 (HL), last updated 25 May 2009 (HL)

    Very useful
    Foreign relations of the United States, 1964-1968 (Harriet Dashiell Schwar, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1998 )
    (http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/vol_xxx/index.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: This site is part of the U.S. Department of State website and contains declassified archival material on the diplomatic relations between the USA and China between 1964 and 1968. The material is presented in the Department of State's documentary series "Foreign policy and diplomacy of the United States". The documents in this volume are drawn from the files of the Department of State and the Bureau, Office, and other lot files of the relevant Departmental units. The volume also includes records from the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
    Site contents: Documents related to: (1) China (PRC and ROC); (2) Tibet; (3) Mongolia.
    Resource suggested by Dan Martin (msyben@mscc.huji.ac.il) via The Asian Studies WWW Monitor, 24.09.2000.
    Added 29 Oct 2000 (HL)


    History:   Top | East Asia | China | Hong Kong | Mongolia | Tibet | Taiwan | Singapore | Archaeology | Biographies
    Related:   Journals | Bibliography

    History: Singapore

    See also the East Asia section above!

    Very useful
    Singapore - Historical Setting (Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, USA)
    (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/sgtoc.html#sg0012).
    Language: English.
    Description: Edited by Barbara Leitch Lepoer in Dec. 1987, this site is part of the the Library of Congress Country Studies: Singapore. The survey includes the following subchapters: (1) Precolonial Era (Temasek and Singapura; Johore Sultanate); (2) Founding and Early Years, 1819-26 (Anglo-Dutch Competition; Raffles' Dream; Early Administration and Growth); (3) A Flourishing Free Port, 1826-67 (Financial Success; A Cosmopolitan Community); (4) Crown Colony, 1867-1918; (5) Between the World Wars, 1919-41; (6) World War II, 1941-45 (The Japanese Malaya Campaign; Shonan: Light of the South); (7) Aftermath of War, 1945-55 (Economic and Social Recovery; Political Awakening); (8) Road to Independence, 1955-65 (People's Action Party; Singapore as Part of Malaysia); and (9) Two Decades of Independence, 1965-85 (Under Lee Kuan Yew; Toward New Leadership).
    Added/revised on 06.12.1997

    Singapore: History (University of Texas, USA)
    (http://asnic.utexas.edu/asnic/countries/singapore/Singapore-History.html).
    A fulltext account on the history of Singapore.

    Useful
    Focus on South East Asia (Asean Focus Group, Australia)
    (http://www.aseanfocus.com/gateway/history.asp).
    Language: English.
    Description: Short historical descriptions of several SE Asian countries, including Singapore. The Singapore part contains: Timeline; Colonialism; The Japanese Occupation; Towards Independence; a map; and a very short bibliography for further reading.
    Added 2 Dec 1997 (HL), last revised 8 Jan 2003 (JH).

    Useful
    The British in Singapore and Malaya (by Alex Glendinning, UK)
    (http://user.itl.net/~glen/BritishinSingapore%26Malaya.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: Part of the Asian Pages by Alex Glendinning, this page gives a brief history of Singapore with some special emphasis on the WW II.

    Useful
    Alex Glendinning's Asian Pages
    (http://user.itl.net/~glen/asianintro.html).
    Language: English.
    Description: This page is provided by Alex Glendinning (UK) and mainly contains information on civilian internees and prisoners of war of the Japanese in Singapore during WW II.

    Singapore History Museum
    (http://www.museum.org.sg/shm/).
    Language: English.
    Last revised 8 Jan 2003 (JH).


    This page is maintained at the

    Sinological Institute, Leiden University, Netherlands,

    with support from the Institute of Chinese Studies (Heidelberg University), the Berlin State Library, and the German Research Foundation


    © Hanno E. Lecher 1995-2009

    URL of this page: http://www.sino.uni-heidelberg.de/igcs/ighist.htm
    URL of main page: http://www.sino.uni-heidelberg.de/igcs/index.html